Arbitration and International Trade in the Arab Countries by Nathalie Najjar is masterful compendium of arbitration law in the Arab countries. A true study of comparative law in the purest sense of the term, the work puts into perspective the solutions retained in the various laws concerned and highlights both their convergences and divergences. Focusing on the laws of sixteen States, the author examines international trade arbitration in the MENA region and assesses the value of these solutions in a way that seeks to guide a practice which remains extraordinarily heterogeneous. The book provides an analysis of a large number of legal sources, court decisions as well as a presentation of the attitude of the courts towards arbitration in the States studied. Traditional and modern sources of international arbitration are examined through the prism of the two requirements of international trade, freedom and safety, the same prism through which the whole law of arbitration is studied. The book thus constitutes an indispensable guide to any arbitration specialist called to work with the Arab countries, both as a practitioner and as a theoretician.
Islamic Commercial Law: Contemporariness, Normativeness and Competence offers new perspectives on why for centuries Islamic commercial law has been perceived as arbitrary and unpredictable, and on its evolution to a contemporary, consistent, reliable and credible body of law. The book also examines why Western positivists have viewed Islamic commercial law in a simplistic or archaic religious framework and counters those arguments with an examination of its normative legal qualities. The work analyses the competencies of Fiqh (jurisprudence) for structuring new financial instruments, and restructuring conventional financial products more equitability.
The challenges posed by the non-liquidity and non-diversity of the Islamic debts market make the market an inefficient tool on contributing to Muslim economic growth. Islamic scholars and experts created sukuk as an Islamic debt instrument to avoid riba (usury), but the sukuk market (especially in the Gulf) still struggles with the prohibition of the trade of debt due to the prohibition of the two Fiqh Academies.
Trading and securitizing debts should be permitted in Islamic law, with one condition, that the debt should be considered low risk. This new rule, the permissibility of trading debts, is supported by three Islamic legal bases, istishab, qiyas, and maslaha, which are recognized by all four Islamic schools of legal thought. Furthermore, permitting the trading of debts is more consistent with the principles and theories of Islamic law than is forbidding it. It is consistent with the obligations theory that debt is a personal right. It is consistent with the mal (property) theory that debt may be sold according to the three Islamic schools of legal thought, all of which consider debt as property. It is consistent with other modern Islamic financial transactions that are permitted by the two Fiqh Academies, such as tawarruq and murabaha.
The Sukūk market is the fastest growing segment of international finance. The study explores the dimension of this market, its growth globally and the main Sukūk markets. The liquidity in this market, the main currency denomination, the subscription diversification, the subprime crisis effects and the dominant structures are elaborated. The difference between sovereign and corporate Sukūk, the benefits and reasons behind Sukūk issuance as well as the Sharī‘ah basis are analysed. Securitisation as the best way forward for Sukūk structuring is scrutinized. The study also discusses the various legal, Sharī‘ah, financial and operational risks facing Sukūk as well as the default controversies. Finally the book examines the methodologies in rating Sukūk and highlights the issues of Sukūk listing, Sukūk index and Sukūk fund.
This study addresses derivatives instruments in Islamic finance. It highlights the benefits of these instruments, their legal aspects and the appropriate alternatives. The forward, futures and options contracts in commodity markets are discussed and the arguments in favour of and against these instruments examined.
The forward contracts issue includes the possibility of trading gold in forward basis, the forward market for currencies and the possible alternative to manage related risks. With the examination of futures contracts, the main arguments against such a contract are addressed, for example the sale prior to taking possession and the sale of debt hedging and speculation. The study proposes
khiyar al-shart and
bay al-arbun as tools of risk management and alternatives to options. The sale of pure rights is at the center of the admissibility of options in Islamic law and is investigated comprehensively.