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A How-to Manual in Eight Essays
Author: Brien Hallett
Wishing to be helpful, Nurturing the Imperial Presidency by Brien Hallett illuminates the 5,000-year-old invariant practice of executive war-making. Why has the nation's war leader always decided and declared war?

Substituting a speech act approach for the traditional "separation of powers" approach, Hallett argues that he who controls the drafting of the declaration of war also controls the decision to go to war.

Since legislated "authorization to use force" are based upon "a collective judgement and agreement" between executive and legislative branches, such legislative vetoes in no way hinder executive control of either the drafting of the declaration or the decision. Innovative ways to deny the executive its ability to draft the declaration and, hence, to decide are proposed.
Author: Hylkje de Jong
In Ἐντολή (mandatum) in den Basiliken Hylkje de Jong deals with the way the Byzantine jurists of the early period (6th and early 7th century) and later period (11th and 12th century) dealt with the law of mandate as they found this in respectively Justinian’s compilation and in the 9th century Basilica. Commonly characterised as consistent Byzantine dogmatics, the remarks of these Byzantine jurists appear to be in reality individual approaches, coloured by each jurist’s own methodology of interpreting.
Based upon the Basilica texts, the law of mandate is set out thematically: the mandate’s object, the liability of parties, actions, remunerations. De Jong proves convincingly that the Byzantine remarks provide a better understanding of Justinian Roman law.

In der Studie Ἐντολή (mandatum) in den Basiliken beschäftigt sich Hylkje de Jong mit der Art und Weise, wie sich die byzantinischen Juristen des 6. und frühen 7. aber auch des 11. und 12. Jahrhunderts mit dem Auftragsrechts befassten, das sie in Justinians Kompilation bzw. in den Basiliken des 9. Jahrhunderts fanden. Die Äußerungen dieser byzantinischen Juristen werden in der Regel als einheitliche byzantinische Rechtslehre aufgefasst, erweisen sich aber in Wirklichkeit als individuelle Ansätze, die von der Methodik des jeweiligen Juristen geprägt und gefärbt sind.
Basierend auf den Basilikentexten wird das Auftragsrecht thematisch dargestellt: Gegenstand des Mandats, Haftung der Parteien, Klagen, Vergütungen etc. Überzeugend weist De Jong nach, dass die byzantinischen Darlegungen ein besseres Verständnis des römischen Rechts von Justinian vermitteln.
Qurʾān Quotations Preserved on Papyrus Documents, 7th-10th Centuries is the first book on the Qurʾān’s Sitz im Leben, i.e. on how the Qurʾān was quoted in Arabic original letters, legal deeds, and amulets. Qurʾān Quotations also serves as an in-depth exploration of the radiocarbon dating of documents and Qurʾānic manuscripts.

Contributors: Ursula Bsees; Tobias J. Jocham; Andreas Kaplony; Michael Josef Marx, Daniel Potthast; Leonora Sonego; Eva Mira Youssef-Grob.
In A Raven’s Battle-cry Charlene M. Eska presents a critical edition and translation of the previously unpublished medieval Irish legal tract Anfuigell. Although the Old Irish text itself is fragmentary, the copious accompanying commentaries provide a wealth of legal, historical, and linguistic information not found elsewhere in the medieval Irish legal corpus. Anfuigell contains a wide range of topics relating to the role of the judge in deciding difficult cases, including kingship, raiding, poets, shipwreck, marriage, fosterage, divorce, and contracts relating to land and livestock.
Law and Language in the Middle Ages investigates the encounter between law and legal practice from the linguistic perspective. The essays explore how legal language expresses and advances power relations, along with the ways in which the language of law legitimates power. The wide geographical and chronological scope showcases how power, legitimacy and language interact, moving the discussion beyond traditional issues of identity or the formation of nation-states and their institutions. What emerges are different strategies reflective of the diverse and pluralistic political, legal, and cultural worlds of the Middle Ages.


Contributors are Michael H. Gelting, Dirk Heirbaut, Carole Hough, Anette Kremer, Ada Maria Kuskowski, Anders Leegaard Knudsen, André Marques, Matthew McHaffie, Bruce O’Brien, Paul Russell, Werner Schäfke, and Vincenz Schwab.
Zur avicennischen Klassifikation der Bezeichnung bei Faḫr ad-dīn ar-Rāzī (gest. 1210)
Author: Nora Kalbarczyk
In Sprachphilosophie in der islamischen Rechtstheorie untersucht Nora Kalbarczyk das bedeutende rechtstheoretische Werk al-Maḥṣūl fī ʿilm uṣūl al-fiqh von Faḫr ad-dīn ar-Rāzī (gest. 1210). Anhand einer detaillierten Analyse der sprachtheoretischen Abhandlung dieses Werks beleuchtet sie den Einfluss der philosophischen Tradition auf die islamische Rechtstheorie ( uṣūl al-fiqh) in der sogenannten post-avicennischen Ära (11.-14 Jh.). Im Zentrum steht dabei eine Klassifikation der Bezeichnung ( dalāla), die sich auf Ibn Sīnā (lat. Avicenna, gest. 1037) zurückführen lässt: Ein Wort kann eine Bedeutung auf dem Wege der Kongruenz ( muṭābaqa), der Inklusion ( taḍammun) oder der Implikation ( iltizām) bezeichnen. Die Autorin zeigt auf, wie Faḫr ad-dīn ar-Rāzī auf der Grundlage der avicennischen Bezeichnungstheorie ein hermeneutisches Instrumentarium entwickelt, das nicht nur für die arabische Philosophie selbst relevant ist, sondern auch für verschiedene Fragestellungen der islamischen Rechtstheorie fruchtbar gemacht wird.

In Sprachphilosophie in der islamischen Rechtstheorie Nora Kalbarczyk examines the influential jurisprudential work al-Maḥṣūl fī ʿilm uṣūl al-fiqh (d. 1210). By means of a detailed analysis of the linguistic treatise of this work she highlights the impact of the philosophical tradition on Islamic legal theory (uṣūl al-fiqh) in the so-called post-Avicennian era (11th-14th c.). Her main focus lies on a classification of signification ( dalāla) that can be traced back to Ibn Sīnā (lat. Avicenna, d. 1037): a word may signify a meaning by way of congruence ( muṭābaqa), containment ( taḍammun) or implication ( iltizām). The author shows how Faḫr ad-dīn ar-Rāzī develops – on the basis of the Avicennian theory of signification – a hermeneutic toolbox which is not only relevant in the context of Arabic philosophy but also useful for different questions of Islamic legal theory.
Foundations of Jurisprudence: An Introduction to Imāmī Shīʿī Legal Theory is a critical edition of the Arabic text with a parallel English translation of Mabādiʾ al-wuṣūl ilā ʿilm al-uṣūl by al-ʿAllāmah al-Ḥillī, introduced, edited and translated by Sayyid Amjad H. Shah Naqavi.
Al-ʿAllāmah al-Ḥillī participated in the leading debates of his day and applied his vast erudition in philosophy, logic, and theology to the paramount subject of jurisprudence. This text presents an exemplar of the rich revival of Shīʿī scholarship in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries of the Common Era. Concise, yet comprehensive, this work sets the standard for the subsequent development and discussion of Imāmī Shīʿī legal theory, such that its influence can be traced through to modern times. This dual-text edition is indispensable for students and scholars of Imāmi Shīʿī jurisprudence.
Author: Cédric Viale
Lexicon of Environmental Law, les définitions du droit de l’environnement, contains terms found in international instruments together with clear, authentic, objective and easily understandable definitions of them. For human beings and for the planet, environmental law is fundamental and so important that all environmental documents should be understood by anyone, old and young, educated and uneducated, expert and non-expert. Yet many environmental law conventions, declarations, instruments, volumes and papers are extremely hard to comprehend or are easily misunderstood because certain expressions and terms are not clearly defined, or are written in such a way that only those familiar with UN jargon can understand them. Dr. Cédric Viale created a useful lexicon for those who face such difficulty in understanding UN environmental law documents and other texts. The volume is easy to use, yet rich in detail, and will be an indispensable tool for practitioners, researchers and students of environmental law.

Le Lexicon of Environmental Law, les définitions du droit de l’environnement contient des termes utilisés dans les instruments ainsi que leurs définitions claires, objectives et aisément compréhensibles. Pour les êtres humains et pour la planète, le droit de l’environnement est fondamental et si important que tous les documents sur l’environnement doivent être compris par tous, vieux et jeune, diplômé ou non, expert ou débutant. De nombreuses conventions, déclarations, documents sont extrêmement difficiles à comprendre ou portent facilement à l’incompréhension parce que, notamment, des mots et expressions ne sont pas clairement définis ou simplement écrits de telle façon que seuls les familiers du jargon onusien peuvent comprendre. Le Docteur Cédric VIALE a produit ce dictionnaire pratique pour ceux qui doivent affronter des difficultés de compréhension du droit de l’environnement. Ce volume est facile à utiliser, riche en détails et deviendra l’instrument indispensable pour les praticiens, les chercheurs, les étudiants, les traducteurs, les avocats, … en environnement et en droit de l’environnement.
This Lawcode is the first Armenian legal text to cover secular as well as ecclesiastical matters. Although the Armenians had been concerned with canon law since the fifth century, secular law was not codified until Greater Armenia was under Muslim domination. Mxit'ar Gosh began his work in 1184 in an attempt to provide Armenians with a comprehensive code based on traditional practice. He did not use the Greek and Syrian lawcodes that were being translated into Armenian during his lifetime. Mxit'ar's code formed the basis for all later Armenian lawcodes, both that of Smbat in Cilican Armenia and those adaptations used in the diaspora farther afield.
This lawcode has never before been translated into any western language. The commentary identifies Mxit'ar's sources, and the introduction places his work in its historical and literary contexts. This book will be of particular interest to historians of the Near East in medieval times, to scholars of Armenian literature, and all those interested in Eastern Christian culture.