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Tomoko Akami


Adachi Mineichirō was the first non-European and the first Asian President of the Permanent Court of International Justice (1931–1934). This review article introduces the first substantial study of Adachi, focusing on his path of ‘becoming’ one of a few leading international jurists with non-Euro-American backgrounds in his period. This review essay demonstrates that by examining this Japanese diplomat and jurist, the book, written in Japanese, contributes to the debates on the history of international law in two significant ways. First, it reveals the fundamental issues in the development of the international judicial system, namely the nature of international jurists, empires and the principle of the equality of national sovereignty, and the significance of the roles of non-Euro-American actors in shaping the system. Secondly, it demonstrates the necessity of the inter-disciplinary collaboration between international law, international history and specific regional and national history, as well as methodological challenges in evaluating the historical development of the system.

Nicolas Carrillo-Santarelli and Carolina Olarte-Bácares


Looking at successive chronological stages in the development from the de facto independence of former Spanish colonies towards their first timid recognition by the United Kingdom and their later full acceptance as states by the Spanish monarchy, this article examines several factors that indicate that pragmatism, motivated by political and economic reasons, was the defining element that persuaded different European powers to grant recognition to the nascent States in a historical era in which such recognition was essential for statehood. Those Latin American Republics likewise benefited from British recognition and the later definitive recognition of Spain and other European powers, bending the limits of the law then existing with dynamics based on the principle of effectiveness coupled with certain legitimacy considerations, which have been present throughout history, including the present.

Si Jin Oh


Regarding the historical East Asian order, previous studies appear to have emphasized Chinese and Japanese perspectives, and this academic phenomenon seems to have contributed to solidifying a misunderstanding. This study attempts to present a Korean perspective providing different points of view that challenge previous perspectives on the legal status of Korea in the nineteenth century. One of the critical misunderstandings about the historical relationship between China and Korea is that of vassalage. However, such an analogy is misleading. The East Asian international normative order, which was based on Li, is a particular order that requires a separate treatment. The nature of the tributary order would not necessarily impair sovereignty if it were possible to project and apply the classical international law of the nineteenth century. As the policy of Dongdoseogi represents, however, Korea once seemed to have preferred to maintain the two normative systems simultaneously.


Edited by Maurice Kamto and Yogesh Tyagi

There is no doubt that the individual has become a judicial person in the international legal order. Access mechanisms to international judges have become numerous. Despite this progress, questions remain and the co-authors of this volume address them from a legal point of view, bringing new perspectives to this topic. Do the imposed obligations and rights granted to the individuals confer on them subjectivity in the international legal order? What are the conditions and the limits to the access of the individual to international justice, especially regional, in order to protect the rights granted by human rights and to claim for reparation, including against multinational companies? To what extent does the international criminal justice favour the access of the victims to justice?
The co-authors address not only the classical questions of the legal personality of the individual, but also the contributions made by international criminal law, including from an African perspective, the compensation systems such as the United Nations Compensation Commission, and the alternative modes of dispute settlements.

L’émergence de l’individu comme être juridique dans l’ordre international est incontestable. Les mécanismes d’accès direct à des juges internationaux se sont multipliés. Malgré ces avancées, il reste des questions en suspend auxquelles les coauteurs de cet ouvrage tentent d’apporter des éléments de réponse, dans une perspective résolument juridique, en dégageant des perspectives nouvelles sur le sujet.
Les obligations imposées et les droits octroyés aux individus leur confèrent-ils la subjectivité dans l’ordre juridique international ? Quelles sont les conditions et les limites de l’accès de l’individu à la justice internationale, notamment régionale, en vue de la protection de ses droits consacrés par les droits de l’homme et de demander réparation, y compris contre les sociétés multinationales ? Dans quelle mesure la justice pénale internationale favorise-t-elle l’accès des victimes à la justice ?
Les coauteurs abordent non seulement les questions classiques de la personnalité juridique des individus, mais également les apports du droit international pénal, y compris dans une perspective africaine, les formules compensatoires comme la commission d’indemnisation des Nations Unies, et les modes alternatifs de règlement des différends.

With the contribution of:
N. Chaeva; A. Garrido-Muñoz; W. Hoeffner; F. Pascual-Vives; G. M. Frisso; T. Szabados; M. Marchegiani; L. Sam; A.-G. Tchaou Sipowo; T. Yamashita.

Alexander Orakhelashvili

This contribution examines the legal merit of the Decision Addressing the Treat from Chemical Weapons, adopted by the 89th Session of the General Conference of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (‘opcw’) on 27 July 2018. While relating to matters of high political importance, this Decision still raises important issues of the constitutionality of international organizations’ use of their delegated powers. This contribution pursues the detail of this matter, by focusing, among others, on the scope of the opcw’s authority under the Chemical Weapons Convention and the relationship between the opcw and the United Nations.

Marco Pertile

Edited by Pietro Gargiulo and Paolo Turrini