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Edited by Helmut Eimer and David Germano

Subject of The Many Canons of Tibetan Buddhism are both the mainstream Tibetan canons of translated Buddhist classics (known as the Bka' 'gyur & Bstan 'gyur), and the alternative canons of literature of the Nyingma sectarian traditions (known as the Rnying ma rgyud 'bum).
The first section discusses the formation and transmission of Tibetan "canonical" texts, but also includes important works of reference, such as a Bka' gdams pa handbook and several unique catalogues. It also features a first report on Tibetan textual transmission in Mongolia.
The second section not only presents interpretative analysis of one of the most important alternative canons in Tibet, the Rnying ma rgyud 'bum, but also discusses essential issues of legitimacy, authority and lineage during the "gray" period of the tenth to twelfth centuries which laid the foundation for the formation of all ensuing Tibetan canons.
The volume thus develops fresh perspectives on the nature, plurality and contents of canons in Tibetan Buddhism.

Mission Schools in Batakland (Indonesia), 1861-1940

Translated by Robert R. Boehlke


Jan S. Aritonang

The expansion of Christianity is often described from the viewpoint of the western missionaries. This book, however, focuses on the large group of indigenous teachers and their pupils at the mission schools in Batakland. These educational activities in fact provided the most important incentive for the birth and growth of the Lutheran Batak Church since 1860. With 3 million members this is the largest protestant church in Indonesia, a Southeast Asian country with 190 million inhabitants, 85% of whom are Muslim. The study is based on archival sources in German, Dutch, Indonesian and Batak, as well as on interviews with local teachers. This is an important case-study about the place of education within the missionary enterprise, the cooperation and conflicts between foreign missionaries and their indigenous helpers, the delicate relation between the Dutch colonial government and a German mission board.


New Essays in the History of Religions


Edited by Smith

Faith and Knowledge in Early Buddhism

An Analysis of the Contextual Structures of an Arahant-Formula in the Majjhima-Nikāya



Hindu-Muslim Relations in British India

A Study of Controversy, Conflict and Communal Movements in Northern India, 1923-1928