This collective volume arises from a Wellcome-funded conference held at the University of Warwick in 2014 about the “new” Galen discovered in 2005 in a Greek manuscript,
De indolentia. In the wake of the latest English translation published by Vivian Nutton in 2013, this book offers a multi-disciplinary approach to the new text, discussing in turn issues around Galen’s literary production, his medical and philosophical contribution to the theme of avoiding distress (ἀλυπία), controversial topics in Roman history such as the Antonine plague and the reign of Commodus, and finally the reception of the text in the Islamic world. Gathering eleven contributions by recognised specialists of Galen, Greek literature and Roman history, it revisits the new text extensively.
La Turba Philosophorum est un traité dont l’original arabe est perdu, et qui est l’un des textes fondateurs de l’alchimie latine. Mais son intérêt dépasse de loin l’histoire de l’alchimie : s’alimentant à des sources aussi diverses que Zosime de Panopolis, Stéphanos d’Alexandrie ou, plus surprenant, Hippolyte de Rome, la Turba se situe au confluent de nombreuses traditions grecques (philosophiques, hermétiques et patristiques), et porte témoignage à la fois de l’histoire de la transmission du savoir grec, et de celle de sa réception dans l’Égypte du IXe siècle. L’étude de la structure du traité montre en outre l’exceptionnelle originalité du projet philosophique de son auteur : construire un cheminement permettant au lecteur de s’approprier la doctrine des “philosophes” grecs.
Turba Philosophorum is a treatise whose Arabic original is lost, and which is one of the founding texts of Latin alchemy. But its interest goes far beyond the history of alchemy: using sources as different as Zosimus of Panopolis, Stephanos of Alexandria or, more surprising, Hippolyte of Rome, the Turba is at the confluence of many Greek traditions (philosophical, hermetic and patristic), and bears testimony both to the history of the transmission of Greek knowledge, and of its reception in Egypt in the ninth century. The study of the structure of the treatise also shows the exceptional originality of the philosophical project of its author: to construct a path allowing the reader to appropriate the doctrine of Greek "philosophers".
Among the many subjects on which Theophrastus wrote, music is one of the most fascinating, as is testified by the sources discussed in this volume. Although scanty, the material we have—sixteen texts altogether, most of which are indirect testimonies—gives an idea of the originality and modernity of Theophrastus’ thought on music, and makes us regret that we do not know more. Our philosopher conceives of music as something that originates from a movement in the soul caused by passions and comes into existence through the body. Accordingly, he is interested in performance—i.e. the way in which musical expression is brought to the listener—and its effects on the soul and the body—e.g. musical therapy.
Mental Illness in Ancient Medicine: From Celsus to Paul of Aegina a detailed account is given, by a range of experts in the field, of the development of different conceptualizations of the mind and its pathology by medical authors from the beginning of the imperial period to the seventh century CE.
New analysis is offered, both of the dominant texts of Galen and of such important but neglected figures as Rufus, Archigenes, Athenaeus of Attalia, Aretaeus, Caelius Aurelianus and the Byzantine 'compilers'. The work of these authors is considered both in its medical-historical context and in relation to philosophical and theological debates - on ethics and on the nature of the soul - with which they interacted.
Theophrastus of Eresus: On Winds, Robert Mayhew provides a critical edition of the Greek text with English translation and commentary on the sole Peripatetic treatise devoted specifically to winds, by Aristotle’s successor in the Lyceum. This is the first edition of this text to appear in over forty years, and the first ever to make use not only of the twelve medieval manuscripts but also of the Oxyrhynchus papyrus fragment of this work (first published in 1986). The lengthy commentary attempts to explain this difficult (and often corrupt) text and its relationship to Aristotle’s meteorological theory and scientific methodology.
The Comparable Body - Analogy and Metaphor in Ancient Mesopotamian, Egyptian, and Greco-Roman Medicine explores how analogy and metaphor illuminate and shape conceptions about the human body and disease, through 11 case studies from ancient Mesopotamian, Egyptian, and Greco-Roman medicine. Topics address the role of analogy and metaphor as features of medical culture and theory, while questioning their naturalness and inevitability, their limits, their situation between the descriptive and the prescriptive, and complexities in their portrayal as a mutually intelligible medium for communication and consensus among users.
The so-called eighth
Stromateus (‘liber logicus’) by Clement of Alexandria (d. before 221 C.E.) is an understudied source for ancient philosophy, particularly the tradition of the Aristotelian methodology of science, scepticism, and the theories of causation. A series of
capitula dealing with inquiry and demonstration, it bears but few traces of Christian interests.
In this volume, Matyáš Havrda provides a new edition, translation, and lemmatic commentary of the text. The vexing question of the origin of this material and its place within Clement’s
oeuvre is also addressed. Defending the view of ‘liber logicus’ as a collection of excerpts made or adopted by Clement for his own (apologetic and exegetical) use, Havrda argues that its source could be Galen’s lost treatise
The physician and commentator Sergius of Reshaina (d. 536) composed two related texts in Syriac about the philosophy of Aristotle, chiefly dealing with themes discussed by Aristotle in his
Categories, but also with his teaching on space as found in the
Physics. This book presents a critical edition and English translation of the shorter of these texts. A survey of Sergius’ life and works is given in the introduction and the intellectual context of his education in Alexandria is outlined, with focus on the medical and philosophical curricula of the Alexandrian school. Sergius’ line of thought is clarified and his text is compared to Greek commentaries on the Categories that also present the teaching of his Neoplatonist master Ammonius Hermeiou.
Epicurean Meteorology Frederik Bakker discusses the meteorology as laid out by Epicurus (341-270 BCE) and Lucretius (1st century BCE). Although in scope and organization their ideas are clearly rooted in the Peripatetic tradition, their meteorology sets itself apart from this tradition by its systematic use of multiple explanations and its sole reliance on sensory evidence as opposed to mathematics and other axiomatic principles.
Through a thorough investigation of the available evidence Bakker offers an updated and qualified account of Epicurean meteorology, arguing against Theophrastus’ authorship of the
Syriac meteorology, highlighting the originality of Lucretius’ treatment of
mirabilia, and refuting the oft-repeated claim that the Epicureans held the earth to be flat.
Aristotle’s Ever-turning World in Physics
8 Dougal Blyth analyses, passage by passage, Aristotle’s reasoning in his explanation of cosmic movement, and provides a detailed evaluation of ancient and modern commentary on this centrally influential text in the history of ancient and medieval philosophy and science. In
Physics 8 Aristotle argues for the everlastingness of the world, and explains this as deriving from a single first moved body, the sphere of the stars whose rotation around the earth is caused by an immaterial prime mover.
Blyth’s explanation of Aristotle’s individual arguments, techniques of reasoning and overall strategy in
Physics 8 aims to bring understanding of his method, doctrines and achievements in natural philosophy to a new level of clarity.