Browse results

This study focuses on the Brazilian species of the genus Purenleon Stange (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae). A total of five species are herein reported to Brazil: Purenleon clavatus (Navás), Purenleon fernandezi Miller & Stange (first record for Brazil), Purenleon cautus (Walker) comb. n., and two new species: Purenleon limeirai sp. n. and Purenleon rafaeli sp. n. The taxonomical status of other two species was reevaluated: Formicaleo bipunctatus Navás was synonymized under P. cautus and Feinerus nebulosus Navás was revalidated and transferred to Purenleon. A key to the South American species of Purenleon is also presented.

In: Insect Systematics & Evolution

Nine new species of the collembolan genus Salina MacGillivray from South America are described and illustrated. Two Neotropical species were recorded for the first time from Brazil: S. dedoris Mari-Mutt and S. tristani Denis. Salina was previously known to occur in three Brazilian states, and this is now updated to include 19 states with 12 recorded species. A new proposal of morphological character description and illustration, and an identification key for the celebensis group are provided. A hypothesis for the phylogenetic relationships among 34 species of Salina (about 50% of the 72 described species) allowed three main pursuits: (a) a reevaluation of Salina species groups; (b) the first explicit interpretation of how morphological characters of these springtails may have changed during the course of the diversification of the taxon; and (c) an evaluation of the historical biogeographic connections of Salina, with an emphasis on the celebensis group distribution to the New World.

In: Insect Systematics & Evolution

The tribe Sisyphini sensu stricto Mulsant, 1842 comprises only three genera, the widespread Sisyphus Latreille, 1807 and Neosisyphus Müller, 1942, and the Mauritius endemic, Nesosisyphus Vinson, 1946. In southern Africa, Sisyphus and Neosisyphus are represented by five species groups in each genus. Together, they comprise a total of 33 valid species, of which six are new: Sisyphus auricomus sp. n; Sisyphus australis sp. n ; Sisyphus bicuariensis sp. n; Sisyphus inconspicuus sp. n; Sisyphus swazi sp. n; and Neosisyphus tembyi sp. n. A further Southern African species, Sisyphus crispatus Gory, 1833, is proposed as a nomen dubium. Sisyphus natalensis Balthasar, 1968 (syn. n), and Sisyphus bornemisszanus Endrödi, 1983 (pars) (syn. n) are made synonyms of Sisyphus sordidus Boheman, 1857. Lectotypes and paralectotypes are designated for Sisyphus costatus (Thunberg, 1818); Sisyphus seminulum Gerstaecker, 1871; Sisyphus nanniscus Péringuey, 1901; Sisyphus transvaalensis Péringuey 1901; Neosisyphus spinipes (Thunberg, 1818) and Neosisyphus barbarossa (Wiedemann, 1823). Diagnoses, photographs of habitus and male genitalia, lists of examined material and distribution maps are presented for all species. An identification key to the southern African sisyphine species is provided.

In: Insect Systematics & Evolution
This book is the first comprehensive work on oriental Notodontidae (Lepidoptera) outside mainland Asia. The studied area includes also Borneo Island, the Malayan Peninsula, entire New Guinea with adjacent islands. All species are illustrated in both sexes with a total number of 1272 specimens on 51 colour plates. Genitalia photos of both sexes as well as detailed distribution maps are provided for each species.
The book deals in the first volume with 298 species and contains descriptions of 99 new notodontid taxa. A second volume will treat with the remaining 160 species and include also a comprehensive biogeographic analysis.
Author: Bruno Zilberman

Corotoca is a strictly Neotropical genus of termitophilous beetles associated with termites of genus Constrictotermes. A cladistic analysis based on 13 terminal taxa and 60 characters (57 morphological and three behavioral) was conducted. The exhaustive search with equally weighted characters resulted in two most parsimonious trees with 95 steps. Spirachtha is proposed to be the sister group of the monophyletic “subgroup Corotocae” (Corotoca + Cavifonexus gen. nov.), based on eleven synapomorhphies (ten exclusive and one homoplastic). The monophyly of Corotoca is supported here, including six species associated with Constrictotermes cyphergaster: (Corotoca hitchensi sp. nov + (C. melantho + C. pseudomelantho sp. nov.) + ((C. fontesi + (C. phylo + C. araujoi)). A new genus, Cavifronexus gen. nov., is proposed to two species associated with Constrictotermes cavifrons (Holmgren, 1910): Cavifronexus guyanae comb. nov., from Guyana and Brazil, previously described as Corotoca; and a new species, Cavifronexus papaveroi sp. nov., from Brazil. This work also includes descriptions, redescriptions, and illustrations for all species and genera. Keys for genera and species identification in “subgroup Corotocae” are also provided.

In: Insect Systematics & Evolution

Interactions between dryinids and their hosts are poorly known in the Neotropical region, especially for the Brazilian fauna. This study aims to expand this incipient knowledge by describing a new species of Anteon Jurine and four new species of Gonatopus Ljungh reared from parasitized leafhoppers (Cicadellidae) collected in the state of Paraná, Southern Brazil. The new species, A. elianeae sp. nov., G. josei sp. nov., G. meloi sp. nov., G. pinhalensis sp. nov. and G. taquarensis sp. nov., are associated with leafhopper species of the subfamilies Iassinae (tribe Gyponini) and Deltocephalinae (tribes Deltocephalini and Pendarini). Both sexes of G. josei sp. nov. and G. taquarensis sp. nov. were associated and males are described, representing the first sexual association based on reared specimens from Brazil. We record for the first time species of Dryinidae parasitizing the leafhoppers species: Curtara concava, Gypona lita and Reticana lineatta (Gyponini), Graminella striatella (Deltocephalini) and Copidinomus vittulatus (Pendarini). All known records in the Neotropic of both Anteon and Gonatupus species associated with host are compiled, all known records of parasitoids of gyponines are reviewed, and the interactions with dryinids are discussed. Each new species is diagnosed and described, and illustrations of both dryinids and parasitized hosts are provided.

In: Insect Systematics & Evolution

A new monotypic genus, Aztecamyia gen. nov., is proposed for a new species of muscid fly, Aztecamyia tlaloc sp. nov., found in highland localities from the Mexican Transition Zone (Mexico, Michoacan, Morelos and Puebla). Additionally, a morphology-based phylogenetic analysis of Coenosiini is presented. The new genus has some unique characters, such as katepisternal setae 0+1+1 in males, while females are the typically Coenosiini 1+1+1; the mid and hind tibia have many long and fine setae on the apical half, from the anterior to posterior surface; and the preapical setae on all femora are absent on all surfaces. The morphology of the male and female terminalia is a typical Coenosiini shape.

In: Insect Systematics & Evolution

Adult Mantispidae are general predators of arthropods equipped with raptorial forelegs. The three larval instars display varying degrees of hypermetamorphic ontogeny. The larval stages exhibit a remarkable life history ranging from specialised predators of nest-building hymenopteran larvae and pupa, to specialised predators of spider-eggs, to possible generalist predators of immature insects. Noteworthy advances in our understanding of the biology of Mantispidae has come to light over the past two decades which are compiled and addressed in this review. All interactions of mantispids with other arthropods are tabled and their biology critically discussed and compared to the current classification of the taxon. Additionally, the ambigous systematics within Mantispidae and between Mantispidae and its sister groups, Rhachiberothidae and Berotidae, is reviewed. Considering the biology, systematics, distribution of higher taxonomic levels and the fossil record, the historical biogeography of the group is critically discussed with Gondwana as the epicenter of Mantispidae radiation.

In: Insect Systematics & Evolution

Wing venation is a character system commonly used in the systematics of fossil insects, but the existing documentation for extant forms is often insufficient to allow robust identification of extinct forms. The existing literature suggests that the small stonefly family Styloperlidae Illies, 1966, for which no fossils have ever been identified, might possess a suite of distinctive traits. In order to assess their relevance, we conducted a comparative analysis based on a set of individuals of Cerconychia livida Klapálek, 1913, and of singletons belonging to four additional species. Our survey demonstrates that, in forewing, a fusion of the anterior-most branch of AA2 with AA1 occurs, a trait unique to the family. The occurrence of one to several cross-veins in the distal part of the ScP–RA area (both wing pairs), and of a supernumerary sigmoidal cross-vein in the MP–CuA area (hind wing), are also distinctive features, but are not unique to the family. A few other peculiar traits, which relevance remains unclear, are highlighted. Hopefully, our survey will allow close fossil relatives to be identified in the near future.

In: Insect Systematics & Evolution

The taxonomic knowledge of Baetidae has been greatly improved in the last decades in South America. Despite the advances, there are problems that need to be addressed. One of these problems is doubt concerning the systematics of species assigned to the genera Paracloeodes Day, Rivudiva Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty, and Varipes Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty, and the evolution of long setae on femora. In the present paper, the monophyly of these three genera is tested using a cladistic approach. The matrix included 53 species and 151 morphological characters: 127 for nymphs and 24 for adults. The dataset was analyzed under equal and implied weights with nine values of k. Group support was estimated with relative Bremer and frequency differences. The results corroborate (i) the paraphyly of Paracloeodes and Varipes, which become monophyletic without P. caldensis + V. singuil, proposed as a new genus Rhopyscelis gen. n., (ii) the long setae on femora as an independent acquisition between Rhopyscelis gen. n. + Varipes and Rivudiva, (iii) the transversal rows of setae on femora as an independent acquisition between Rhopyscelis gen. n. + Varipes and Rivudiva, (iv) the spine on subgenital plate as an independent acquisition between Paracloeodes, Rivudiva and Gen. A.

In: Insect Systematics & Evolution