This study focuses on the Brazilian species of the genus Purenleon Stange (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae). A total of five species are herein reported to Brazil: Purenleon clavatus (Navás), Purenleon fernandezi Miller & Stange (first record for Brazil), Purenleon cautus (Walker) comb. n., and two new species: Purenleon limeiraisp. n. and Purenleon rafaelisp. n. The taxonomical status of other two species was reevaluated: Formicaleo bipunctatus Navás was synonymized under P. cautus and Feinerus nebulosus Navás was revalidated and transferred to Purenleon. A key to the South American species of Purenleon is also presented.
Nine new species of the collembolan genus Salina MacGillivray from South America are described and illustrated. Two Neotropical species were recorded for the first time from Brazil: S. dedoris Mari-Mutt and S. tristani Denis. Salina was previously known to occur in three Brazilian states, and this is now updated to include 19 states with 12 recorded species. A new proposal of morphological character description and illustration, and an identification key for the celebensis group are provided. A hypothesis for the phylogenetic relationships among 34 species of Salina (about 50% of the 72 described species) allowed three main pursuits: (a) a reevaluation of Salina species groups; (b) the first explicit interpretation of how morphological characters of these springtails may have changed during the course of the diversification of the taxon; and (c) an evaluation of the historical biogeographic connections of Salina, with an emphasis on the celebensis group distribution to the New World.
The tribe Sisyphini sensu strictoMulsant, 1842 comprises only three genera, the widespread SisyphusLatreille, 1807 and NeosisyphusMüller, 1942, and the Mauritius endemic, NesosisyphusVinson, 1946. In southern Africa, Sisyphus and Neosisyphus are represented by five species groups in each genus. Together, they comprise a total of 33 valid species, of which six are new: Sisyphus auricomussp. n;Sisyphus australissp. n; Sisyphus bicuariensissp. n; Sisyphus inconspicuussp. n; Sisyphus swazisp. n; and Neosisyphus tembyisp. n. A further Southern African species, Sisyphus crispatusGory, 1833, is proposed as a nomen dubium. Sisyphus natalensisBalthasar, 1968 (syn. n), and Sisyphus bornemisszanusEndrödi, 1983 (pars) (syn. n) are made synonyms of Sisyphus sordidusBoheman, 1857. Lectotypes and paralectotypes are designated for Sisyphus costatus (Thunberg, 1818); Sisyphus seminulumGerstaecker, 1871; Sisyphus nanniscusPéringuey, 1901; Sisyphus transvaalensisPéringuey 1901; Neosisyphus spinipes (Thunberg, 1818) and Neosisyphus barbarossa (Wiedemann, 1823). Diagnoses, photographs of habitus and male genitalia, lists of examined material and distribution maps are presented for all species. An identification key to the southern African sisyphine species is provided.
This book is the first comprehensive work on oriental Notodontidae (Lepidoptera) outside mainland Asia. The studied area includes also Borneo Island, the Malayan Peninsula, entire New Guinea with adjacent islands. All species are illustrated in both sexes with a total number of 1272 specimens on 51 colour plates. Genitalia photos of both sexes as well as detailed distribution maps are provided for each species.
The book deals in the first volume with 298 species and contains descriptions of 99 new notodontid taxa. A second volume will treat with the remaining 160 species and include also a comprehensive biogeographic analysis.
Wing venation is a character system commonly used in the systematics of fossil insects, but the existing documentation for extant forms is often insufficient to allow robust identification of extinct forms. The existing literature suggests that the small stonefly family Styloperlidae Illies, 1966, for which no fossils have ever been identified, might possess a suite of distinctive traits. In order to assess their relevance, we conducted a comparative analysis based on a set of individuals of Cerconychia lividaKlapálek, 1913, and of singletons belonging to four additional species. Our survey demonstrates that, in forewing, a fusion of the anterior-most branch of AA2 with AA1 occurs, a trait unique to the family. The occurrence of one to several cross-veins in the distal part of the ScP–RA area (both wing pairs), and of a supernumerary sigmoidal cross-vein in the MP–CuA area (hind wing), are also distinctive features, but are not unique to the family. A few other peculiar traits, which relevance remains unclear, are highlighted. Hopefully, our survey will allow close fossil relatives to be identified in the near future.
The taxonomic knowledge of Baetidae has been greatly improved in the last decades in South America. Despite the advances, there are problems that need to be addressed. One of these problems is doubt concerning the systematics of species assigned to the genera Paracloeodes Day, Rivudiva Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty, and Varipes Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty, and the evolution of long setae on femora. In the present paper, the monophyly of these three genera is tested using a cladistic approach. The matrix included 53 species and 151 morphological characters: 127 for nymphs and 24 for adults. The dataset was analyzed under equal and implied weights with nine values of k. Group support was estimated with relative Bremer and frequency differences. The results corroborate (i) the paraphyly of Paracloeodes and Varipes, which become monophyletic without P. caldensis + V. singuil, proposed as a new genus Rhopyscelisgen. n., (ii) the long setae on femora as an independent acquisition between Rhopyscelisgen. n. +Varipes and Rivudiva, (iii) the transversal rows of setae on femora as an independent acquisition between Rhopyscelisgen. n. +Varipes and Rivudiva, (iv) the spine on subgenital plate as an independent acquisition between Paracloeodes, Rivudiva and Gen. A.
Coprophanaeus (Megaphanaeus) d’Olsoufieff, 1924 has four valid species: C. lancifer (Linné, 1767), C. ensifer (Germar, 1821), C. bonariensis (Gory, 1844) and C. bellicosus (Olivier, 1789). However, authors disagree about the placement of C. bellicosus. Thus, our aims were (I) to test if Megaphanaeus is a monophyletic group and (II) verify to which subgenus C. bellicosus belongs. We sequenced three mitochondrial and one nuclear marker for ten Phanaeini species: COI (672bp), COI-II (1326bp), 16S (527bp) and 28S (994bp). For fifteen species we sequenced two markers, COI (681pb) and 16S (532pb). Both matrices were analyzed under three methods of phylogenetic inference: Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood, and Bayesian Inference. Megaphanaeus is here considered monophyletic including C. bellicosus as sister-group to (C. bonariensis (C. lancifer + C. ensifer)). All analyses recovered the non-monophyly of both C. lancifer and C. ensifer, because of a population of C. lancifer grouped with C. ensifer specimens.
We investigated the phylogenetic relationships among seven of the ten Halobatinae genera (Heteroptera: Gerridae) based on COI+II, 16S rRNA, and 28S rRNA genes. Our analyses recovered monophyly of Halobatinae, and suggested paraphyly of Metrocorini caused by the position of Ventidius and Esakia. Since our phylogenies did not infer monophyly of the subgenus Halobates (s.str.) within Halobatini, we synonymized Austrobates and Halobates (Hilliella) with Halobates. We confirmed that (1) the limnic lifestyle of Metrocorini was ancestral in Halobatinae, (2) the marine lifestyle evolved only once in the common ancestor of Asclepios + Halobates, (3) the limnic lifestyle of some members of Halobates was independently derived from marine ancestors, and that (4) the open ocean was colonized at least three times in Halobates. A catalogue of Halobatinae organized according to an updated classification is presented, including all known geographic distributions, bibliographical references, and additional notes to all species of the subfamily.
The subtribe Cylindromorphoidina Cobos, 1979, the only representative of tribe Aphanisticini in the Neotropical region, is currently composed of two genera, EurynodesThéry, 1934 and CylindromorphoidesKerremans, 1903. The genus TaphroceroidesHespenheide, 2007, originally proposed in Cylindromorphoidina, is currently placed in Brachyina (tribe Tracheini). A detailed morphological comparison of Taphroceroides species with members of Eurynodes and Cylindromorphoides shows similarities that strongly support their transference back to Cylindromorphoidina. A new morphological definition and classification of Cylindromorphoidina is presented along with the description of new species in the three genera: Eurynodes gemmatussp. nov., E. capillatussp. nov., Cylindromorphoides ferrugifronssp. nov., Taphroceroides brunneussp. nov., and T. brasiliensissp. nov. Photographs and comments on the type series of previously described species are provided. New biological data and possible association of Cylindromorphoidina species with Bromeliaceae are reported. Finally, a distribution map is provided for all species of Cylindromorphoidina.
A systematic revision of Paryphthimoides, a satyrine genus widely distributed in Central and South America, is presented based on an integrative approach. Molecular phylogeny inferred using multiple methods with nuclear (GAPDH, RpS5) and mitochondrial (COI) genes indicates that Paryphthimoides, as currently circumscribed, is polyphyletic. A new taxonomic arrangement is proposed reflecting the monophyly based on molecular and morphological evidence. Paryphthimoides now comprises 14 taxa, namely: P. poltys poltys (Prittwitz, 1865), P. poltys numilia (C. Felder & R. Felder, 1867) stat. nov., P. vestigiata (Butler, 1867), P. fridae Zacca, Casagrande, Huertas & Nakahara sp. nov., P. jorupe Zacca, Casagrande, Checa & Willmott sp. nov., P. terrestris terrestris (Butler, 1867) comb. nov., P. terrestris muyrakytan Zacca, Casagrande & Mielke ssp. nov., P. terrestris araguaianus Zacca, Casagrande & Mielke ssp. nov., P. terrestris grevei Zacca, Casagrande & Mielke ssp. nov., P. touloulou (Benmesbah, 2015) comb. nov., P. brixius brixius (Godart, ) comb. nov., P. brixius madre Zacca, Mielke, Casagrande & Lamas ssp. nov., P. brixius rouranensis Brévignon ssp. nov. and P. flavofascia (Zacca & Siewert, 2014) comb. nov.Euptychia zeredathaButler, 1869 and P. bahneriAnken, 1994 are new synonyms of P. p. poltys, and Euptychia binalinea Butler, 1867 and E. poltys bahianaBryk, 1953 are new synonyms of P. poltys numilia. Lectotypes are designated for Euptychia zeredatha, Neonympha numilia, Euptychia vestigiata, Euptychia terrestris and Euptychia brixiola, Butler, 1867 and a neotype is designated for Satyrus brixius. In addition, female morphology is described for the first time for all available species, and biological data and distributional maps are provided for all species. Last instar and pupae of Paryphthimoides p. poltys are also described.