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Addendum Vratislaviensis

Addition to miscellaneum ‘The Codex Vratislaviensis of Philostratus’ Life of Apollonius of Tyana’ (published online 22 August 2019)

Gerard J. Boter

Richard Hunter and Rebecca Laemmle


This paper considers the etymologising of the names of Apollo in Plato, Cratylus and Plutarch, The E at Delphi. It is argued that the richness of the god’s etymologies in these texts and in classical literature more generally suggests that a special connection was seen between the nature of Apollo and the practices of etymologising; this connection is in part owed to the similarities between etymologising and prophetic speech and practice and in part to the fact that ancient etymology reveals settled, unchanging truths about language, just as Apollo manifests the settled, unchanging order of the world. The paper sheds light not just upon ancient etymological practice from Homer onwards but also on certain conceptions of the nature of Apollo.

Alex Andrew Antoniou


This article challenges accepted interpretations of Cassius Dio (51.20.6-8) concerning the worship of the living emperor in Rome and the Italian peninsula. I offer a new interpretation of this frequently discussed passage by demonstrating that Dio was keen to emphasise that Augustus, as Dio’s model emperor, was not himself responsible for the temples and cults raised to him in Rome and Roman Italy. I also briefly explore the beneficial consequences of this interpretation in our wider study of emperor worship in the Italian peninsula.

Hearing the λόγος

Diogenes of Babylon and the ἐπιστηµονικὴ αἴσθησις

Spencer A. Klavan


I examine here an arresting and poorly understood pair of fragments (Phld. Mus. 4.34.2-8, 115.26-35) in which the Stoic Diogenes of Babylon refers to ‘scientific sense perception’ (ἐπιστηµονικὴ αἴσθησις). Previous studies of this phrase have focussed on its attribution by Sextus Empiricus to Plato’s nephew, Speusippus. But Sextus is likely mistaken in crediting the phrase to the Academy. I argue that ‘scientific sense perception’ is best interpreted as Diogenes’ contribution to Stoic epistemology in an effort to defend the ἦθος theory of musical affect against attacks from its detractors. By identifying a hitherto unnoticed reference to Aristoxenus of Tarentum, I show that Diogenes used ἐπιστηµονικὴ αἴσθησις to give ἦθος theory new intellectual viability in the Hellenistic schools. Using the concept of ‘scientific sense perception’, the Stoic could have supported the claim that those trained in harmonic science may directly perceive ethical and emotional content even in wordless music.

‘Interpreters of Interpreters’

Oracular and Grammatical Hermeneutics

Minna Seppänen and Antti Lampinen


We discuss analogies between oracular and grammatical interpretation, as reflected in our Greek and Latin sources from the Classical era to the High Empire. The two hermeneutical professions of µάντις and γραµµατικός both aim at elucidating the thought (διάνοια) involved in the interpretandum. This is a notion quite frequently made at one level or another in ancient literature, as evidenced for example in writings by Plato, Crates of Mallus, Aristarchus, Cicero, Nigidius Figulus, and Sextus Empiricus.