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Edited by Heriberto Avelino, Matt Coler and Leo Wetzels

This book presents unique insights into laryngeal features, one of the most intriguing topics of contemporary phonetics and phonology. It investigates in detail properties such as tone, non-modal phonation, non-pulmonic production mechanisms (as in ejectives or implosives), stress, and prosody. What makes American indigenous languages special is that many of these properties co-exist in the phonologies of languages spoken on the continent. Taking diverse theoretical perspectives, the contributions span a range of American languages, illustrating how the phonetics and phonology of laryngeal features provides insight into how potential articulatory and aero-acoustic conflicts are resolved, which contrastive laryngeal features can co-occur in a given language, which features pattern together in phonological processes and how they evolve over time. This contribution provides the most recent research on laryngeal features with an array of studies to expand and enrich the fascinating field of phonetics and phonology of the languages of the Americas.

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Pamela Munro and Caitlin E. Gallagher

Abstract

The Arawak language Garifuna, spoken in Belize, Honduras, Guatemala, and Nicaragua, has a large number of different negative sentence patterns. Negative and hortative verb stems beginning with m- are used in a variety of constructions. The verb úwa appears in negative existentials, locationals, and ‘have’ sentences, and is also used in periphrastic negation of verbs that exceptionally have no negative stem. The negative particle máma is used to negate predicate nominal constructions and sentences using the incompletive auxiliary yan. Máma and a related particle are also used in negative questions and exclamations. While Garifuna has a few negative constructions that are “symmetric” with their non-negative counterparts (in the sense of Miestamo 2005), the majority of negative / non-negative sentence pairs are asymmetric, using different agreement patterns or contrasting in other ways, most often because a negative verb with the m- prefix cannot also have a subject prefix.

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Gale Goodwin Gómez and Hein van der Voort