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Takuya Aikawa, Sota Ozawa, Noritoshi Maehara, Hayato Masuya, Katsunori Nakamura and Natsumi Kanzaki


To investigate the phoretic association between nematodes in the genus Bursaphelenchus and cerambycid beetles in north-eastern Japan, Pinus densiflora logs were placed in two pine forests in the towns of Yamada and Hiranai as beetle oviposition sites. At 1-2 years after oviposition, adults of Monochamus saltuarius emerged from the logs placed in Yamada and adults of Acalolepta sejuncta and A. fraudatrix emerged from the logs placed in Hiranai, and Bursaphelenchus nematodes were recovered from two of these species (M. saltuarius and A. sejuncta). Morphometrics and a phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer regions 1 and 2 and the 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene indicated that both of these nematode populations were B. doui, which has previously only been known to use M. subfasciatus and A. fraudatrix as vectors. Therefore, this study demonstrated that this nematode utilises at least four species of beetles belonging to two genera as vectors in the field.

Kerrie A. Davies, Faerlie Bartholomaeus, Dong Mei Li, Zeng Qi Zhao, Weimin Ye and Robin M. Giblin-Davis


Ficophagus from collecting trips in eastern Australia, made over 15 years, are summarised and show that species of the genus occurred widely in sycones of Ficus, subgenus Urostigma, section Malvanthera. Two new species (based on morphological differences and molecular sequencing) are described: Ficophagus elizabethae sp. n. from Ficus macrophylla, F. rubiginosa and F. obliqua, and Ficophagus richardi sp. n. from Ficus obliqua; and a morphospecies, Ficophagus Morphospecies malandicus from Ficus obliqua. Ficophagus elizabethae sp. n. is characterised by having the excretory pore (EP) opening from the level of the junction of the conus and shaft of the stylet to that of the knobs, a relatively long procorpus (1.0-2.5 times length of stylet), female tail with an obliquely truncate tail with a hyaline area and a finely to broadly rounded tip which may be mucronate; post-vulval uterine sac (PUS) ca one vulval body diam. (VBD) in length; rose-thorn-shaped spicule with distinct rostrum and prominent condylus; and genital papillae arranged as largest pair adcloacal, second pair posterior to mid-tail length, and third small pair near tail tip; and was collected from Sydney in New South Wales, to Bundaberg in Queensland (QLD). Ficophagus richardi sp. n. is characterised by having the EP opening at the level of the junction of the stylet shaft and conus, a labial cap which is raised around the opening for the stylet; procorpus 0.8-1.7 times length of the stylet, PUS <1 VBD in length, long uterus, and female tail with a V-shaped hyaline area at the bluntly rounded tip; rose-thorn-shaped spicule with a small rostrum and prominent condylus, three pairs genital papillae, first and largest on anterior cloacal lip, second at 70% of tail length measured from cloacal aperture, and third near tip, and was collected from Ban Ban Springs in the south to the Bundaberg region in the mid-north of QLD. In addition, in the absence of pertinent molecular sequences, a morphospecies is described. Ficophagus Morphospecies malandicus is characterised by having the EP opening anterior to the junction of the stylet conus and shaft, procorpus 0.9-2 times length of stylet, a short PUS usually <1 VBD long, short uterus, rose-thorn-shaped spicule with a raised condylus and prominent rostrum, and three pairs of subventral papillae on the tail (one adcloacal, one posterior to mid-tail and one near tail tip); and was collected from the Atherton Tableland, QLD. A table comparing morphological characteristics is provided to help with identification of Ficophagus nematodes from figs of the section Malvanthera in eastern Australia.

George O. Poinar Jr and Douglas C. Currie


A new species of fossil mermithid, Heydenius simulphilus sp. n. (Nematoda: Mermithidae), is described from two parasitic juvenile specimens adjacent to a male black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) in Baltic amber. It is proposed that the nematodes emerged from their developmental sites in the haemocoel of the black fly host through a wound in the abdomen of the latter, as indicated by the release of a droplet of haemolymph and damaged cuticle. Various internal structures of the nematodes are identified and related to those found on extant developing mermithids. This is the first fossil record of mermithid parasitism of a black fly.

Edited by David J. Hunt and Roland Perry

Nematology Monographs and Perspectives is a series of books presenting in-depth studies of various aspects of Nematology.

Authors are cordially invited to submit proposals and/or full manuscripts by email to the publisher Stefan Einarson. For information on how to submit a book proposal, please consult the Brill Author Guide.

Jolien Claerbout, Jenny Neukermans, Isabel Vandevelde, An Decombel, Nancy de Sutter, Anne-Marie Deeren, Sofie Venneman, Peter Bleyaert, Monica Höfte and Nicole Viaene


The root-lesion nematode, Pratylenchus penetrans, causes growth reduction in glasshouse-grown lettuce and is mainly controlled by chemical soil disinfestation. Integrated management strategies require more knowledge about the population dynamics and damage threshold densities. We monitored the population during 2.5 years in a commercial glasshouse by sampling soil in the same four 1 m2 spots at 0-30 cm and 30-60 cm depth. The grower grew lettuce in rotation with leek, applied 1,3-dichloropropene in summer and left the field fallow during winter. Growing leek reduced the nematode population slightly but chemical soil disinfestation lowered the numbers drastically, although 41% of the nematodes in the deeper layer survived. Black fallow resulted in a slight increase of the population, probably due to hatching. Two pot experiments with ten densities of P. penetrans were conducted to estimate the damage threshold for a summer and autumn cultivar (‘Cosmopolia’ and ‘Brighton’, respectively). The thresholds for lettuce weight were 669 and 3834 P. penetrans (100 ml soil)−1 in summer and autumn, respectively, but with considerable variability in estimated parameters. The thresholds for root damage were much lower: 204 and 48 P. penetrans (100 ml soil)−1. Nematode numbers did not increase on lettuce in the pot tests (maximum multiplication rate was 0.40) but increased slightly in the commercial setting. These results show that populations of P. penetrans build up slowly when butterhead lettuce is rotated with leek and fallow, but chemical soil disinfestation is required to avoid numbers resulting in root damage.

Aminat Korede Akinsanya, Steve Olaoluwa Afolami, Peter Kulakow and Danny Coyne


Despite being the single largest cassava-producing country, yields in Nigeria remain consistently poor and among the lowest. Regionally, yields are also particularly low across Africa. Pests and pathogens, including plant-parasitic nematodes, play an important role in this current yield deficit. African countries are not only faced with the problem of food security but also that of nutritional deficiency, due to limited micronutrients in the diet. In this study, six biofortified cultivars were evaluated for their response to inoculation with approximately 30 000 root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) eggs in 30 l pots in Nigeria. All cassava cultivars proved highly susceptible to M. incognita infection after 6 months, with nematode reproduction factor ranging from 7.0 to 44.8. Galling was common on feeder roots and gall index scores were recorded between 4 to 5 (on a scale of 1-5 where 5 ⩽ 100 galls). Meloidogyne incognita infection significantly reduced plant height, stem girth, fresh plant mass, fresh storage root number and storage root weight. Percentage yield loss of between 41.8-88.4% was recorded in M. incognita-infected plants compared with non-infected controls. Although M. incognita reduced storage root weight, it did not necessarily affect the nutritional quality (total carotenoid) or dry weight percentage of the biofortified cassava cultivars. Total carotenoid and dry weight contents of the control cultivar were similar to some of the biofortified cultivars. The high susceptibility of the biofortified cassava cultivars to M. incognita infection indicates that substantial yield losses are likely being experienced by farmers, as this nematode pest is prevalent across sub-Saharan Africa and the tropics.

Alba N. Ruiz-Cuenca and Joaquín Abolafia


Paracrobeles psammophilus from the type locality is redescribed based on SEM studies. In addition, material of P. psammophilus previously described from Sicily (Italy) is revised. Species of Paracrobeles are analysed and form two morphological groups: the laterellus-group with three species (P. kelsodunensis, P. laterellus and P. mojavicus) having a lip region with two guard processes at both primary and secondary axils and shorter and more robust spicules, and the psammophilus-group with two species (P. deserticola and P. psammophilus) having primary axils bearing two guard processes and secondary axils with only one guard process and longer and slender spicules. Another four species (Acrobelinema cornis, Cervidellus cancellatus, C. rarus and C. sonorensis), having an intermediate morphology between Paracrobeles and Nothacrobeles, are transferred to Nothacrobeles (= Acrobelinema n. syn.).

Paula Santos Ferreira, José Luiz Rodrigues Torres, Maria Amelia dos Santos, Ricardo de Oliveira Parolini and Ernane Miranda Lemes


Management of plant-parasitic nematodes in no-tillage systems relies on knowledge of the species, their abundance and their host range in a certain cropping area. Crop rotation is one of the most efficient techniques in the control of plant-parasitic nematodes; thus, the identification of non-host plant species is essential. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the host suitability of different cover crops used in crop rotations to control two of the most devastating plant-parasitic nematodes in the Brazilian central region, Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita. Two experiments were conducted in a completely randomised design under glasshouse conditions. In the M. incognita experiment, seven treatments (cover crops) were evaluated: Crotalaria juncea (sunn hemp; CJ), Stylosanthes humilis (Townsville stylo; TS), Pennisetum glaucum (millet; M), Triticum aestivum (wheat; W), Mucuna aterrima (black mucuna, BM), Glycine max (soybean treated with nematicide (fluensulfona) (SN) and soybean without nematicide (SwN)). In the M. javanica experiment, nine treatments were evaluated: Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea), Brassica napus (canola), B. nigra (mustard), CJ, M, W, BM, SN and SwN. The evaluations were performed 60 days after inoculation, when eggs and juveniles were present in the plant roots and soil, and the nematode reproduction factors (RF) were determined. The results indicated that CJ, M and BM were effective in controlling M. javanica and M. incognita. The SwN and even SN resulted in high RF and were not effective in the control of M. javanica and M. incognita.

Fariba Mohammadi Zameleh, Akbar Karegar, Reza Ghaderi and Abbas Mokaram Hesar


Helicotylenchus ciceri n. sp. and H. scoticus are described and illustrated based on morphological, morphometric and molecular characters. The new species is characterised by a conical and truncated lip region with five or six distinct annuli, stylet 32-37 μm long with anteriorly concave knobs, secretory-excretory pore posterior to the pharyngo-intestinal valve, dorsally convex-conoid tail with a terminal projection, phasmids 14 (7-20) annuli anterior to the level of anus, empty spermatheca and absence of males. Intraspecific variation of 16 populations of H. scoticus, collected from chickpea and lentil fields in Kermanshah province, western Iran, is discussed. The results of the phylogenetic analyses based on the sequences of the partial 18S rRNA, D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S rRNA and ITS rRNA genes are provided for the studied species, confirming their differences from each other and determining the position of them and their relationships with closely related species.

Aldo Zullini and Federica Semprucci


There is no single feature to distinguish free-living soil nematodes from freshwater nematodes, also because all free-living nematodes are essentially aquatic. This notwithstanding, by examining the frequencies of some characters of 1141 European species, differences of qualitative/quantitative characters between soil and freshwater nematodes were found. In particular, aquatic and semi-aquatic species are, on average, longer and slimmer than soil species, have a longer tail, greater body weight, smooth cuticle and larger amphids. A new body parameter, length of the pharynx in relation to the length of the whole digestive tract (e), was also taken into consideration.