A new standard description of Collembola Symphypleona is proposed. In particular, a standard table of the appendicular chaetotaxy (antennae, legs, and furcula) is given. According to this presentation, the following species are redescribed: Lipothrix lubbocki (Tullberg, 1872), Gisinurus malatestai Dallai, 1970, Caprainea marginata (Schött, 1893), and Caprainea bremondi (Delamare & Bassot, 1957).
The spicule complement of a demosponge specimen collected from the Atlantic coast of Spain was noted to be similar to that of Pachastrella monilifera, but particularly characterized by the presence of short-shafted mesotriaenes. After detailed examination, it was concluded that the specimen undoubtedly belonged to the species Pachastrella ovisternata Von Lendenfeld, 1894. For a long time, this species has been regarded a synonym of Pachastrella monilifera Schmidt, 1868. Examination of this new specimen showed that Pachastrella ovisternata was a valid species of the genus Pachastrella. Moreover, it denoted the real existence of mesotriaenes in this genus.
Paul M. Martens and Marco C. Curini-Galletti
The family Archimonocelididae Meixner, 1938 has been revised. The family contains two subfamilies, each comprising two genera: the Archimonocelidinae with Archimonocelis Meixner, 1938 and Meidiama Marcus, 1946, and the Calviriinae subfam. nov. with Asilomaria Karling, 1966 and Calviria gen. nov. with 20, 2, 1, and 3 species, respectively, 13 of which are new to science.
L. Deharveng and C. Gers
Ten new species of Troglopedetes are described from caves of Thailand. The large variability found in some classical specific characters is discussed, and the interest of the macrochaetotaxic pattern is emphasized. A key to Thai species of the genus is given.
Božidar P.M. Ćurčić, Srećko B. Ćurčić, Nina B. Ćurčić and Slobodan E. Makarov
Two species and one subspecies of Roncus L. Koch, 1873, new to science (R. tintilin n. sp., R. trojan n. sp., and R. trojan strahor n. ssp.), collected in eastern and southeastern Serbia, Yugoslavia, are described, diagnostic characters are illustrated, and their distribution is given.
Willem N. Ellis and Albertine C. Ellis-Adam
An analysis of the anthophilous fauna of N.W. Europe is presented, stressing the role plants play for insects. The study is based on some 29,000 relations between about 2,600 insect species and 1,300 plant species (569 genera). The data are derived from our database (“CrypTra”) of biotic relations between Cryptobiota and Tracheophyta, that is based on published sources.
It is suggested that a ratio of 2 to 5 anthophilous insect species per entomophilous plant species is the rule in N.W. Europe, where other types of zoophily are virtually absent.
A small minority of the plant species/generaplay a disproportionally important role as hosts to flower visitors; many of these so-called cornucopian taxa belong to the commonest entomophilous plants in the region, and occur also in moderately disturbed habitats.
There is a significant positive correlation between the commonness of a plant species and the fraction this plant represents of the trophic resources exploited by an insect species. There is, on the other hand, a significant negative correlation between the number of insect species visiting a given plant species, and the number of plant species visited by a given insect species. These two elements together demonstrate that the anthophilous fauna and the entomophilous flora of N.W. Europe as a whole form a loose system, not predominantly characterised by specialisation. In accordance with this, factor analysis suggests that there is no ground to recognise more than three visitor types, viz., the allotropous, hemitropous, and eutropous visitors as defined by Loew. A minorityof the plant taxa - essentially the cornucopian ones - can with some difficulty be associated with these three types of visitors, and a very few narrowly specialised plant taxa can be associated with more specific visitor groups. However, the large majority of plants cannot be fitted in any typology.
These results have practical implications for the nature management of the anthophilous fauna, in that the important role of the cornucopian floral element is underlined. The fact that the majority of the cornucopian species are perennial, or evenwoody, places constraints to agricultural practices intended to foster beneficial anthophilous insects.
Terue Cristina Kihara and Carlos Eduardo Falavigna da Rocha
Two new clausidiid copepods of the genus Hemicyclops (Poecilostomatoida: Clausidiidae) associated with mud shrimps are described from Brazil: Hemicyclops caissarum sp. n. associated with Callichirus major (Say, 1808) from a beach in Santos and Hemicyclops sebastiani sp. n., in burrows of Callichirus guassutinga (Rodrigues, 1971) in São Sebastião. H. caissarum is closest to H. carinifer Humes, 1965 from Madagascar and H. sebastiani can be easily distinguished from all its congeners by the presence of a thick, densely plumose seta on the antennule segment 2, and the greatly enlarged tergal plate of the 4th pediger. New records of Hemicyclops subadhaerens Gooding, 1960 and Hemicyclops thalassius Vervoort & Ramirez, 1966 from the Brazilian coast are also included.
Six non-overlapping size classes and morphologically distinct nauplius stages of Parastenocaris phyllura are studied using light microscopy. The nauplii have been reared in laboratory cultures. A comparative analysis of the morphology of the nauplius stages of P. phyllura and P. vicesima (cf. Schminke, 1982) is presented.
During the Amsterdam Expedition to Ascension Island in 1989 eighteen species of polychaetes were collected, fifteen of which were already known to science. One could not be identified to species level and two were new to science: Aricidea (Aedicira) ascensionensis n. sp. and Notodasus arenicola n. sp. Four of the known species are widely distributed, three are circumtropicalsubtropical and one has a tropical-subtropical distribution in the Pacific and in the Atlantic Ocean. Another species is recorded from different regions in the Atlantic Ocean. The rest of the species were –.until now –.only known from their type localities, viz. West Indies, Angola, Persian Gulf, Galapagos Islands, and South Shetland Islands.
Sjouk Pinkster, Maarten Scheepmaker, Dirk Platvoet and Nico Broodbakker
After the introduction of Gammarus tigrinus in The Netherlands some 25 years ago and of other recently invading amphipods (Crangonyx pseudogracilis and Corophium curvispinum) the native species decreased, the invaders increased. The success of these invaders and its impact on the local amphipod fauna is discussed. Electrophoretic tests give evidence that a second invasion of Gammarus tigrinus, this time from Germany, is taking place. Some predictions about future developments are made.