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Lu Xu


This article identifies and clarifies some of the miscommunication between Chinese and English in the discussion of rule of law or rule by law. “Rule by law” is not a concept readily understandable by a Chinese audience because there is no acceptable translation or equivalent in Chinese. At the same time, the historical and contextual significance of the different denotations of “rule of law” in Chinese is often overlooked in an English-speaking environment. Meanwhile, the abstraction in critical examination of Chinese law often masks significant changes taking place in China’s construction of a “socialist rule of law with Chinese characteristics”, such as the emergence of a system of case law. The different components and aspects of such a system, ranging from the guidance cases system published by the Supreme People’s Court, to the largest database of judicial decisions in the world, and the newly established China International Commercial Court under the Belt and Road Initiative could fundamentally alter and structure, nature and principles of Chinese law as we know it.

Tom Harper


The Belt and Road Initiative alongside the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation are the latest phase of China’s return to the Eurasian landmass after the collapse of the Soviet Union. China has reshaped Eurasia in several ways, which includes the common definition of this concept, which had largely been perceived as a chiefly Russian entity. This is rooted in Halford Mackinder’s The Geographical Pivot of History, which depicted the Eurasian landmass as a threat to Britain’s maritime hegemony with the advent of rail. While the traditional focus had been on Eurasia as the Russian empire, Mackinder also alluded to a Eurasian empire created by ‘Chinese organised by Japanese’ as a result of the latter’s development during the Meiji Restoration. While this did not come to pass, it has become an imperative to consider the notion of an Asian power in Eurasia due to China’s rise.

The purpose of this paper is to argue that China is as much a Eurasian power in the vein of Mackinder’s theories as Russia is, with the BRI providing a potential opportunity to further integrate with Eurasia. In addition, the initiative is also symbolic of China’s bid to create an alternative order both in Eurasia and the wider world as part of its global role to challenge the dominance of the United States, which raises the spectre of Mackinder’s warning over a challenger emerging from the Eurasian Heartland.

Joshua Andresen


China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) is the largest investment in global infrastructure of all time, easily outpacing the United States’ Marshall Plan following World War II. Despite the BRI’s aspirations, it has been called into question from an increasing range of perspectives. This article focuses on security questions raised from the American perspective. By placing the BRI in historical and global perspective, I will critically evaluate the questions raised by American observers in order to separate the concerns we should take seriously from those that are overblown. The Belt and Road initiative and accompanying military buildup have been heralded as a fundamental change in the global order. Whether that is the case, of course, remains to be seen. What is certain, however, is that the balance of regional economic and military power is undergoing a dramatic change.

Bryane Michael and Say Goo


To what extent do corporate governance practices in one jurisdiction affect another? In this paper, we look at the way that Hong Kong’s and the Mainland’s corporate governance practices have co-evolved, along with offshore incorporations from both places. Drawing on empirical illustrations of the data using analytical techniques like differential equations and Fourier Spectral Analysis, we find a strong relationship across time between changes in corporate governance practices in both jurisdictions as well as offshore incorporations. Our data also support the idea of a theory-free equilibrium level of corporate governance (determined by market participants’ own behaviour rather than by a theory-laden econometric model). We show that lethargy likely explains the persistence of corporate governance practices in both places, with innovations in one place correlating with innovations in the other. Such work clearly implies that corporate governance improvements in one place can help encourage such improvements in other markets which have not adopted laws aimed at improving corporate governance.

Mala Sharma


China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) as a geoeconomic vision and geopolitical strategy is closely watched and scrutinised by Indian economists, diplomats, and strategists. Perspectives on India’s approach to the BRI can broadly be classified into three—the optimist, the sceptic and the cautionary. Whereas, economists generally appear optimistic, there is a sense of uneasiness within India’s strategic community that the BRI represents much more than China’s ambition to emerge as an economic leader in the region. This article argues that India’s approach to the BRI has largely been pragmatic, cautious and complex. Accordingly, India has taken an atomistic approach to the various components of the BRI depending on its security and economic needs, which explains why on the one hand India has become increasingly receptive of the Bangladesh-China-India-Myanmar Economic Corridor (BCIM EC) and on the other continues to publicly oppose the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC).

Ampai Buranaprapuk

Nietzsche influenced Strauss throughout the composer’s mature career, from Also sprach Zarathustra, Op. 30 (1896), which shares the same name as the treatise by Nietzsche, to Eine Alpensinfonie, Op. 64 (1911–15), which initially bore the title Der Antichrist, after Nietzsche’s 1888 essay. Nietzsche, through Zarathustra, stresses the idea of the Übermensch, which proposes that the human occupies the stratum between the primal and the super-human. The Übermensch is not, however, the zenith for a man. The goal for man is rather his journey toward self-overcoming, his struggle within himself. In Ein Heldenleben (A Hero’s Life, 1898), Strauss incorporates Nietzschean concepts without any direct references to Nietzsche. The designation of a man as a hero, the battle as an obstacle with which one struggles, the alternation between peace and war and the cycle of recurrence in this tone poem all reflect Nietzsche’s ideas. This research considers the tone poem from a hermeneutical perspective and argues that Strauss’s hero in Ein Heldenleben embodies qualities encompassing the true Nietzschean hero.

Permtip Buaphet

This research on the images of Thai women in a magazine for older adults aims to analyze the structure and components of interview columns and examines the linguistic strategies used to present images of Thai women within the context of a magazine for older adults by associating textual analysis with visual methodology. The data collection in this research was grounded on O-lunla magazine, a magazine targeting people in their 60s and older. Twenty-two interview columns from ten magazine issues from January 2017 to October 2017 were included. The study discloses how this magazine for older adults defines the meaning of ageing and the role of the magazine in passing particular notions about desirable ageing and images of older women in Thai society through the use of linguistic strategies, as well as emphasizing the concepts of desirable ageing for women. The results with regard to the content reveal that the meanings of ageing and the images of Thai women in their older age in this magazine for older adults are formed in a positive way. That is to say, older women are depicted as archetypes of a pleasant life in terms of happiness, work and health.

Intira Charuchinda

Trickster tales can be found in the folklore of various preliterate people. Nasrdin Avanti is a series of humorous trickster tales from the Uyghur people. In this series, the protagonist Nasrdin Avanti confronts a variety of problems or difficulties, but is able to overcome or solve them. This paper explores Nasrdin Avanti’s problem-solving strategies as found in the book, The Frog Rider: Folk Tales from China, which contains 29 of his stories. Moreover, this paper discusses the functions of these folktales in their cultural and social contexts. It finds that the trickster hero uses eight strategies, the most frequent of which is talking nonsense (six stories), while the others include: feigning ignorance (four stories), satirizing (four stories), using the same reasons as the antagonists (four stories), playing on words (three stories), staying one jump ahead (three stories), taking advantage of the situation (three stories), and flattering (two stories). These problem-solving strategies can cause antagonists to lose face, stop people from bothering the trickster hero or prevent them from taking advantage of him, provide other people with new perspectives, and make them happy. In addition, the folktales of Nasrdin Avanti fulfil different social and emotional functions. Paradoxically, they provide amusement and allow people to escape from the harsh realities in their everyday lives, while at the same time, helping to retain social values and inculcate moral lessons.

Oak Joo Yap

This paper examines the musical Orientalism and representation of Oriental Others in Haydn’s seraglio opera, L’incontro improvviso. In seraglio opera, one of the Turkish-themed musical genres of “Turcomania” that swept Europe in the eighteenth century, Oriental Others were defined by their supposed negative human traits such as slyness, crudeness or irrationality. Alla turca topos in L’incontro, as in other seraglio operas, are extensively used to accentuate the inferiority of Others, their customs or religions. The representation of Others demonstrates little ethical complexity, exhibiting a stark dichotomy between morally upright Westerners and unsophisticated Others with dubious morals. I argue that despite presenting no European characters dueling with Others and thus foregoing such a narrative format as “East meets West on stage,” Haydn’s L’incontro is, nonetheless, more diminishing in its portrayal of Others than in most seraglio operas: even the male protagonist is among the degraded Others who are usually subplot characters from a low social echelon. No “rescuer,” the protagonist in L’incontro is rendered as an incompetent figure. Ali’s unmanly stature is further highlighted by the active, counter-stereotypical Oriental heroine, Rezia, who is presented as a foil to emphasize the inadequacy of Ali. The ultimate male Other, the Sultan, suffers equally from a weak stage presence despite fulfilling his role as a conveyer of Enlightenment ideals in a typical lieto fine of Turkish opera.