The forty-one years between the Society of Jesus’s papal suppression in 1773 and its eventual restoration in 1814 remain controversial, with new research and interpretations continually appearing. Shore’s narrative approaches these years, and the period preceding the suppression, from a new perspective that covers individuals not usually discussed in works dealing with this topic. As well as examining the contributions of former Jesuits to fields as diverse as ethnology—a term and concept pioneered by an ex-Jesuit—and library science, where Jesuits and ex-Jesuits laid the groundwork for the great advances of the nineteenth century, the essay also explores the period the exiled Society spent in the Russian Empire. It concludes with a discussion of the Society’s restoration in the broader context of world history.
Mantellid frogs present an extensive adaptive radiation endemic to Madagascar and Comoros, being the subfamily Mantellinae the most morphologically and ecologically diverse. The Mantellinae present key innovative evolutionary traits linked to their unique reproductive behavior, including the presence of femoral glands and a derived vomeronasal organ. In addition, previous studies pointed to size differentiation in playing an important role in species’ dispersal capacities and shaping of their geographic ranges. Despite the high phenotypic variation observed in this clade, to date an exhaustive morphological analysis of their anatomy has still not been performed, much less in relation to internal structures. Here, we present a comprehensive skeletal description of a mantellid species, Blommersia transmarina, from the island of Mayotte in the Indian Ocean, which has potentially undergone a process of moderate gigantism compared to other Blommersia species. We describe its intraspecific skeletal variation utilizing non-destructive volume renderings from μCT-scans, and characterize the presence of sexual dimorphism and size covariation in skeletal structures. Notably, we found numerous signs of hyperossification, a novel structure for mantellids: the clavicular process, and the presence of several appendicular sesamoids. Our findings suggest that skeletal phenotypic variation in this genus may be linked to biomechanical function for reproduction and locomotion.
The connectivity of groundwater aquifers is lower compared to surface waters. Consequently, groundwater species are expected to have smaller distributional ranges than their surface relatives. Molecular taxonomy, however, unveiled that many species comprise complexes of morphologically cryptic species, with geographically restricted distributional ranges in subterranean as well as in surface waters. Hence, the range sizes of surface and groundwater species might be more similar in size than hitherto thought. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the range size of surface amphipods of the genus Gammarus and subterranean amphipods of the genus Niphargus in Iran. We re-analyzed the taxonomic structure of both genera using two unilocus species delimitation methods applied to a fragment of the COI mitochondrial marker, to identify molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs), and assessed the maximum linear extent (MLE) of the ranges of MOTUs from both genera. Genus Gammarus comprised 44–58 MOTUs while genus Niphargus comprised 20–22 MOTUs. The MLEs of the two genera were not significantly different, regardless the delimitation method applied. The results remained unchanged also after exclusion of single site MOTUs. We tentatively conclude that in this case there is no evidence to consider that groundwater species are geographically more restricted than surface species.
The putative monophyly and systematic position of Merodon nigritarsis group was assessed based on morphological and molecular data of the mitochondrial COI and nuclear 28S rRNA genes. The previously reported concept of the group has been redefined, and M. crassifemoris Paramonov, 1925 is now excluded. The related M. avidus group is redefined here, including the Merodon avidus complex and M. femoratus Sack, 1913. Species delimitation of morphologically defined species of M. nigritarsis group was well supported by COI gene analysis, with the exception of M. alagoezicus Paramonov, 1925 and M. lucasi
. Descriptions are given for three new species of the M. nigritarsis species group: Merodon cohurnus Vujić, Likov et Radenković sp. n., Merodon longisetus Vujić, Radenković et Likov sp. n. and Merodon obstipus Vujić, Radenković et Likov sp. n., and one new species from the M. avidus group: Merodon rutitarsis Likov, Vujić et Radenković sp. n. A lectotype is designated for M. femoratus Sack, 1913, and two new synonymies of this species were proposed: M. biarcuatus Curran, 1939 and M. elegans
. Here we review 18 species from the M. nigritarsis group and six species from the M. avidus group and provide morphological diagnoses of the species groups. Additionally, diagnosis of 12 branches (groups or individual taxa) of M. avidus-nigritarsis lineage, an illustrated diagnostic key for the males, and distribution map are provided for the new species.
This study explored types and intensities of students’ emotions related to participation in school-based SSI club project related to climate change (CE). Ten high school students participated twice a week for 7 weeks in club activities to model causes/ impacts of CE, explore local problems related to CE, and plan and participate in social action. Researchers used the control-value theory to analyze how students’ emotions changed over time and found that while some initially reported negative emotions persisted after the club activities concluded (anxiety, fear, guilt, and despair), students also reported more positive emotions (sense of accomplishment, confidence) than before. Students’ emotions became more positive when planning and participating in social action and some emotions (guilt, anxiety, and expectation) helped to drive students to action. We discuss implications for club activities as a way to educate students about CE and we raise questions for future research.
This paper presents historical analysis of the development of science education in Singapore from 1997 to 2011 with the aim of understanding the impact of education initiatives introduced during this period known as the ability-driven phase in Singapore. To provide context for the research, the author first describes the state of governance and education in Singapore during this period and then provides an introduction to the Thinking Schools, Learning Nation vision, and two main educational initiatives: the Teach Less, Learn More initiative and the Information Technology Masterplan. Next the impact of these initiatives on science education is explored and the impact on science culture and science education in Singapore is discussed. The author concludes with a discussion about value of historical analysis examining the impact of policy on educational practice and a discussion about the implications of this research for science and science education in Singapore in the future.
A wide variety of crossmodal correspondences, defined as the often surprising connections that people appear to experience between simple features, attributes, or dimensions of experience, either physically present or else merely imagined, in different sensory modalities, have been demonstrated in recent years. However, a number of crossmodal correspondences have also been documented between more complex (i.e., multi-component) stimuli, such as, for example, pieces of music and paintings. In this review, the extensive evidence supporting the emotional mediation account of the crossmodal correspondences between musical stimuli (mostly pre-recorded short classical music excerpts) and visual stimuli, including colour patches through to, on occasion, paintings, is critically evaluated. According to the emotional mediation account, it is the emotional associations that people have with stimuli that constitutes one of the fundamental bases on which crossmodal associations are established. Taken together, the literature that has been published to date supports emotional mediation as one of the key factors underlying the crossmodal correspondences involving emotionally-valenced stimuli, both simple and complex.
This introduction highlights the contribution of the special issue to a radical contextualisation of the history of the enslaved. In particular, it suggests that the conditions and circumstances that foster or hamper practices of enslavement need to be studied as part of a broader set of labor relations. And it proposes that shifts in the practices of enslavement are closely related to broader transitions in power relations. This double expansion allows connecting the history of enslavement and the enslaved with broader themes in labor and social history.
In the original double flash illusion, a visual flash (e.g., a sharp-edged disk, or uniformly filled circle) presented with two short auditory tones (beeps) is often followed by an illusory flash. The illusory flash has been previously shown to be triggered by the second auditory beep. The current study extends the double flash illusion by showing that this paradigm can not only create the illusory repeat of an on-off flash, but also trigger an illusory expansion (and in some cases a subsequent contraction) that is induced by the flash of a circular brightness gradient (gradient disk) to replay as well. The perception of the dynamic double flash illusion further supports the interpretation of the illusory flash (in the double flash illusion) as similar in its spatial and temporal properties to the perception of the real visual flash, likely by replicating the neural processes underlying the illusory expansion of the real flash. We show further that if a gradient disk (generating an illusory expansion) and a sharp-edged disk are presented simultaneously side by side with two sequential beeps, often only one visual stimulus or the other will be perceived to double flash. This indicates selectivity in auditory–visual binding, suggesting the usefulness of this paradigm as a psychophysical tool for investigating crossmodal binding phenomena.