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Vision, Narrative, and Wisdom in the Aramaic Texts from Qumran

Essays from the Copenhagen Symposium, 14-15 August, 2017

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Edited by Mette Bundvad and Kasper Siegismund

The Aramaic Dead Sea Scrolls from Qumran have attracted increasing interest in recent years. These texts predate the “sectarian” Dead Sea scrolls, and they are contemporary with the youngest parts of the Hebrew Bible. They offer a unique glimpse into the situation before the biblical canons were closed. Their highly creative Jewish authors reshaped and rewrote biblical traditions to cope with the concerns of their own time. The essays in this volume examine this fascinating ancient literature from a variety of different perspectives. The book grew out of an international symposium held at the University of Copenhagen in August 2017.

Ecritures digitales

Digital Writing, Digital Scriptures

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Claire Clivaz

Ecritures digitales aims to demonstrate how digital writing contributes to the emergence of “a new relationship between the human body and the machine” as Jacques Derrida proposed when he considered the effects of new technologies. This reconfigured relationship, not surprisingly, is also influencing the digital future of the Jewish-Christian textual corpus referred to as “the Scriptures”. The French title brings together this duality in one expression: Ecritures digitales. The English subtitle makes explicit the double meaning of the unique French word Ecritures: Digital writing, digital Scriptures. With a full French version and an abbreviated English version, this monograph analyzes the main challenges and opportunities for both writing and the Scriptures in the transition to digital culture. Ecritures digitales souhaite démontrer de quelle manière l’écriture digitale contribue à l’émergence d’une « nouvelle relation du corps humain aux machines », selon le diagnostique posé par Jacques Derrida à propos des effets des nouvelles technologies. Cette relation innovante influence également l’avenir numérique du corpus textuel judéo-chrétien désigné comme «les Ecritures». Le titre français rassemble en une seule expression ces deux thématiques: Ecritures digitales. Le sous-titre anglais rend sa double signification explicite: Digital writing, digital Scriptures. Avec une version française complète et une version anglaise brève, cette monographie analyse les principaux défis des métamorphoses digitales de l’écriture et des Ecritures.

Paulus als interkultureller Vermittler

Eine Studie zur kulturellen Positionierung des Apostels der Völker

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Esther Kobel

Paulus als interkultureller Vermittler: Wie der Jude Paulus als Christusgläubiger sein Evangelium unter den Menschen aus den Völkern verbreitete.
Der als Jude geborene Apostel Paulus sah sich berufen, das Evangelium der Auferstehung Christi unter den Völkern zu vermitteln. Die vorliegende kulturwissenschaftlich geprägte Studie zeigt auf, dass und in welcher Weise Paulus seine bikulturelle Persönlichkeit einsetzte, um die Menschen aus den Völkern für seine Version des Evangeliums von Jesus Christus zu gewinnen. Im Fokus der Untersuchung zu Paulus als Vermittler in einem Kulturtransfergeschehen stehen die paulinischen Selbstbeschreibungen, insbesondere deren „Spitzensätze“ (1 Kor 9,19–23) sowie als beispielhafte Manifestation seiner Adaptabilität die Selbstdarstellung als Wettkämpfer (1 Kor 9,24–27).

Ancient Manuscripts in Digital Culture

Visualisation, Data Mining, Communication

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Edited by David Hamidović, Claire Clivaz and Sarah Bowen Savant

Ancient Manuscripts in Digital Culture presents an overview of the digital turn in Ancient Jewish and Christian manuscripts visualisation, data mining and communication. Edited by David Hamidović, Claire Clivaz and Sarah Bowen Savant, it gathers together the contributions of seventeen scholars involved in Biblical, Early Jewish and Christian studies. The volume attests to the spreading of digital humanities in these fields and presents fundamental analysis of the rise of visual culture as well as specific test-cases concerning ancient manuscripts. Sophisticated visualisation tools, stylometric analysis, teaching and visual data, epigraphy and visualisation belong notably to the varied overview presented in the volume.

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Liv Ingeborg Lied

Abstract

During the first decades of the twenty-first century, a growing number of libraries and collections around the world have digitized their manuscript holdings, making manuscripts visually accessible online. Exploring the outcome of these digitization processes as an ongoing media shift, the present article discusses the potential consequences of the new visual availability of manuscripts to paradigms and practices of textual scholarship. How may the increased presence of manuscripts online contribute to a change in editing practices, as well as the academic reader’s expectations for the content and format of critical editions? How may the increased presence of digitized manuscripts online affect studies of manuscripts – beyond editorial practices, and (how) will the digitization of manuscripts change the needs of scholars to access manuscripts in libraries and collections?

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H.A.G. Houghton

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The adoption of digital editing software has led to a significant change in the process of creating a critical edition of the New Testament, as embodied in the Novum Testamentum Graecum Editio Critica Maior. Data is no longer gathered as a collation of witnesses against a standard base text, but in the form of complete transcriptions of individual manuscripts which then form the basis of an automatically generated apparatus. This chapter outlines the procedures involved in creating a body of such electronic data. In particular, it considers the accuracy and transparency of the current transcription process for this edition, suggesting that proofreading is an important stage even if a double-blind approach has been used for the initial transcriptions and arguing for a fuller use of the TEI Header to describe the source and limitations of the transcription. It also addresses the publication and release of XML files, proposing that such scholarly work is best made available in the form of individual files consisting of a single biblical book and under a license which only requires attribution to the original creators when the data is re-used rather than restricting data to non-commercial use or stipulating that derivatives must be released under the same terms (share-alike).

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Jennifer Aileen Quigley and Laura Salah Nasrallah

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This chapter offers a history of the edX/HarvardX course “Early Christianity: the Letters of Paul”. It delineates the pedagogical considerations for the development, structure, and implementation of their course, reflecting upon our experiment in whether and how feminist pedagogy could be deployed in a MOOC (Massive Open Online Course). We constructed a MOOC that formed a “classroom” or community where all learners contributed to the production of knowledge. This construction included broader strategies of decentering: the organizing faculty member was set alongside other experts, and even the figure of Paul was less of a focus than those to whom he wrote. The chapter offers quantitative data about course participants and qualitative data about the experience of the teaching staff and online students, which may be useful to developers of other such courses in Religious Studies. But the real aim of the chapter contends that MOOCs should keep as a key goal the crafting of a public, free, and critical space for students who express a desire, no matter their location on the globe, to learn about and to discuss the Bible.

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James F. McGrath

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McGrath’s chapter on the so-called Gospel of Jesus’ Wife sets aside as settled the question of the papyrus’ authenticity, and explores instead what we can learn about the Digital Humanities and scholarly interaction in a digital era from the way the discussions and investigations of that work unfolded, and how issues that arose were handled. As news of purported new finds can spread around the globe instantaneously facilitated by current technology and social media, how can academics utilize similar technology to evaluate authenticity, but even more importantly, inform the broader public about the importance of provenance, and the need for skepticism towards finds that appear via the antiquities market?

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Stephen J. Davis

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The Yale Monastic Archaeology Project (YMAP) sponsors work at monastic sites in Egypt. Part one of this article reports on the discovery of manuscript fragments in the Church of St. Shenoute at the White Monastery near Sohag and on procedures and complications related to the tasks of photo-documentation and digitization. Part two focuses on the cataloguing of Coptic and Arabic manuscripts at the Monastery of the Syrians in Wādī al-Naṭrūn, where the goal of digitization is complicated by monastic concerns about cultural heritage, the legacy of colonialism, and the control of manuscript content in the digital age.