This book offers a unique critical analysis of the legal nature, effects and limits of UN Security Council referrals to the International Criminal Court (ICC). Alexandre Skander Galand provides, for the first time, a full picture of two competing understandings of the nature of the Security Council referrals to the ICC, and their respective normative interplay with legal barriers to the exercise of universal prescriptive and adjudicative jurisdiction. The book shows that the application of the Rome Statute through a Security Council referral is inherently limited by the UN Charter as well as the Rome Statute, and can conflict with other branches of international law, including international human rights law, the law on immunities and the law of treaties. Hence, it spells out a conception of the nature and effects of Security Council referrals that responds to these limits and, in turn, informs the reader on the nature of the ICC itself.
Modern Slavery – A Comparative Study of the Definition of Trafficking in Persons Dominika Borg Jansson discusses why, despite international anti-trafficking efforts, there are so few trafficking convictions worldwide. In an easily accessible language, the author explains why international legal harmonization in this area has been difficult. Making use of the concept of legal transplants, Dominika Borg Jansson compares experiences from Sweden, Poland and Russia offering insights into especially Russian legislation that are not widely available. The problems concerning the implementation of the international definition of trafficking are here divided into country-specific challenges and obstacles attributable to the original source. Jansson also addresses the effectiveness of criminalization of trafficking and offers suggestions on how future trafficking legislation might be framed.
While the system of international law is improving enormously and certain legal provisions are becoming an integral part of jus cogens norms, this body of law must be studied together with other systems which have basically been effective in its development. The principles of the rule of law must be evaluated collectively rather than selectively. In fact, most Islamic nations have ratified the ICC Statute. They have thereby contributed to the establishment of the pillars of morality, equality, peace and justice. At the same time, those pillars may be strengthened by means of an accurate interpretation of the principles of international criminal laws by all parties. The objective of these comparative philosophies is to examine their core principles, similarities and differences. The intention is to indicate that the variation in theories may not obstruct the legal implementation of international criminal law if their dimensions are judged objectively and with the noblest of motives towards mankind.