The meanings of disease have undergone such drastic changes with the introduction of modern Western medicine into China during the last two hundred years that new discourses have been invented to theorize illness, redefine health, and reconstruct classes and genders. As a consequence, medical literature is rewritten with histories of hygiene, studies of psychopathology, and stories of cancer, disabilities and pandemics. This edited volume includes studies of discourses about both bodily and psychiatric illness in modern China, bringing together ground-breaking scholarships that reconfigure the fields of history, literature, film, psychology, anthropology, and gender studies by tracing the pathological path of the “Sick Man of East Asia” through the nineteenth and twentieth centuries into the new millennium.
Tuberculosis mortality in the United States and in Britain was declining in the late nineteenth century but rising in Ireland. Only in the first decade of the twentieth century did mortality from tuberculosis begin to fall and even then it remained higher in Ireland than in Britain and many other European nations throughout the first half of the twentieth century.
Why Ireland’s pattern of tuberculosis mortality was different is the subject of this book. Several controversies in the history of tuberculosis epidemics are addressed; the degree to which poverty and standard of living played a part in the tuberculosis decline, the role of public health, urbanisation and gender.
Because tuberculosis was comparatively higher in Ireland it remained a much more potent political issue well into the twentieth century and the interaction between Ireland’s politics and the question of tuberculosis is discussed.
Experimental pharmacology is often portrayed as a creation of the nineteenth century, the age of the sciences in medicine. This book demonstrates that the basic methodology of the field, including chemical analysis,
in vitro testing, animal experimentation and human research, was already developed in the course of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Putting remedies on trial was stimulated by the challenge to Galenism through new chemical, mechanical and vitalist concepts of disease, by the import of exotic drugs and the flourishing trade with secret medicines. The book describes the main issues of eighteenth-century pharmacology and therapeutics and provides detailed case studies of three key areas: lithontriptics (remedies against urinary stones), opium, and Peruvian bark (quinine). It shows how pharmacological knowledge and therapeutic change were promoted in medical centres of the time, such as Edinburgh, London, Paris, Halle and Göttingen. Yet it also reveals how by publication of medical case histories many otherwise little-known practitioners contributed to this scientific enterprise as well.
From ‘Duck and Cover’ in the 1950s, when American schoolchildren were instructed to hide beneath their desks in the event of nuclear attack to contemporary campaigns against pandemic flu, education campaigns have been used to prepare the general public for apocalyptic events. Governments have made use of various media from films, leaflets and television to the internet to inform, inspire and scare populations. Forms of disaster education also permeate popular culture with films and television programmes illustrating survival techniques from dealing with terrorist attacks in
24 to thwarting zombie apocalypse in
The Walking Dead and
28 Days Later. Using critical race theory and whiteness studies the book argues that information about disasters has always, tacitly or overtly, prioritised the survival of certain groups of citizens above others. Drawing on examples from the UK and the US, from past and contemporary disaster education and popular culture, it considers that rather than being kitsch, naïve and ephemeral, such campaigns are central to the way in which states define survival, life and death. The book will be of interest to educationalists, historians, sociologists and cultural theorists as well as those working in emergency planning, public health and communications.
Photograph of Survival Supplies for the Well-Stocked Fallout Shelter (c. 1961) from U. S. National Archive. ARC Identifier 542103 / Local Identifier 311-D-9(2). This image is in the public domain.
Animating this book is a twofold question: In what ways are adult and popular educators responding to various harsh economic, political, cultural and environmental conditions? In doing so, are they planting seeds of hope for and imaginings of alternative futures which can connect individuals and communities locally and globally to achieve economic, ecological and social justice?
The book illustrates how transformative politics of solidarity often involve actors across vastly different backgrounds. Solidarity is therefore a political relationship that is forged through particular struggles situated in place and time across power differentials. The authors put popular education to work by describing and analysing their strategies and approaches. They do so using accessible language and engaging styles.
Popular education is a medium for dreaming, for imagining other futures. It is also essential for countering the wilful spreading of fake news and propagation of ignorance. Pedagogies of solidarity are necessary to building connections amongst people at a time when competitive individualism and alienation are rampant. Forging solidarity with and amongst communities is a means towards that end, and, indeed, an end in itself.
During the nineteenth century, social reformers took hold of an already existing institution—the school—and sought to make it compulsory. In the process, they supplanted parents and domestic life—the home—as the primary educational force for children.
As education was taken out of the home, American classrooms were at the same time remade into a particular kind of home life—one based upon a sentimentalized maternity, where love can always triumph over the “public” and “masculine” forces of competition, merit, and hierarchy.
And so love entered into the discourse of teaching …
In this model, a good teacher loves her students. She makes her classroom into a home. Like a good mother, she sacrifices for them, enduring long hours of isolation, low pay, and little public support or recognition. Students, in their turn, should love their teacher. To please her, they should learn the values that would sustain a more virtuous republic. Parenting, through all of this, was redefined as a private activity. Battle lines were drawn and the stakes were love, learning and control.
It doesn’t need to be this way.
It is time to rethink the ways in which parents and teachers interact with one another. It is time to redefine “homeschooling” as something all families engage in and that all public schools should seek to support.
Virtual worlds and other virtual environments offer an adaptable context for applied and situated learning experiences. In this book, educators, instructional designers, librarians, administrators and scholars reflect on how to leverage constructivist, authentic, collaborative and complex interactive educational experiences through the use of these multisensory environments.
Explore the intersection of presence, personal and group identity, culture, immersive learning experiences, multiuser virtual environments
(MUVEs) and massive multiplayer online roleplaying games (MMORPGs) with eleven multidisciplinary researchers. The examples range from K-12 to university educational experiences and highlight critical information from a variety of MUVEs, such as Second Life, Active Worlds, There, and several MMORPGs, including Ultima Online, Everquest and the World of Warcraft.
The literature in relation to home schooling grounded in empirical research and focusing on gender role and the impacts of social class has been neglected and unexplored. Home schooling is at an initial period, for the public, researchers, media and educational authorities in China it is mysterious and even abnormal or odd. This book seeks to bring a rich body of qualitative data to provide in-depth information in relation to the demographic characteristics of home schooling parents, the motivations for home schooling in China, the process of practicing it and its relevant academic and social outcomes.
Learning with Mothers examines the social difference in terms of social class in the process of home schooling and also takes account of gender difference in terms of parental involvement, aiming to answer the questions about home schooling, such as:
Who are practicing home schooling for their children?
Why do parents choose to home school their children?
How are parents involved in their home schooling?
What is accomplished in doing so?
En route to a conference, a physician from Jakarta boards a plane to the US. He does not know he is the index patient for the next global influenza pandemic. From this catalyst, thousands of people will get sick, hundreds of people will die.
October Birds follows the healthcare and emergency management responders in the town of Dalton, Texas as they cope with the unfolding pandemic. Dr. Eliza Gordon, Chief Epidemiologist for the city struggles to control the outbreak and be a mother. Infectious disease specialist Dr. Ben Cromwell tries to maintain control of the increasing numbers of patients at Memorial Hospital, while Memorial’s infection control specialist fights to limit the spread of the disease to the healthcare workers and the other patients. Dalton’s emergency manager copes with an ever increasing logistical nightmare, and the incident commander tries to hold everything together. Meanwhile a
currendera in the town searches for a cure.
October Birds is grounded in real-life public health practice, sociological research, and emergency management. It is ‘a/r/tographical research,’sociological inquiry within the science/art intersection.
October Birds is more than a story—it is also a sociological theory of community-level response to health threats.
This novel can be read as a supplementary text in a number of disciplines, including sociology, nursing, public health, health studies, emergency management, and psychology, and can be used in qualitative research methods courses as an example of arts-based research. It can also be read simply for pleasure, and instill the question: ‘What if?’ What if a devastating pandemic does emerge? How will we respond?
“October Birds is a narrative that will have any student, health care practitioner, or person who reads enthralled with the true possibilities of what might be transpiring inside the walls of their local county health department.”—as reviewed on
The Sociological Imagination