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R. Bobbink and Q. Mauer

Summary

The authors examine how papyrological sources from Roman Egypt written in Greek on antichresis relate to classical Roman law. Antichresis attested in papyrological antichretic contracts had a lot in common with antichresis emerging from Roman dispute resolutions. There was only one substantive difference: in classical Roman law, protection of the debtor was emphasized, whereas in the Greek papyrological antichretic contracts the position of the creditor was favoured. Given the similarities found, the authors conclude that antichretic loan both as an independent legal institution and as a pactum antichreticum was a pan-Mediterranean legal concept.

Jeroen M.J. Chorus

Summary

This article reviews C.J.H. Jansen’s attempt to write the history of Private Law (except for Commercial Law) doctrine in The Netherlands during the 19th Century. Regrettably, Jansen’s book does next to nothing discuss academic and other scholarly writings on the Law of Property and of Obligations, and does not at all discuss such writings on the Law of Persons and the Family, of Juristic Persons and of Succession. It only deals with aspects of methodology, of sources of law and of extra-legal factors which inspired some authors, apart from pouring out over the reader lots of facts unconnected with Private Law doctrine. The book’s title is misleading.

Jan Hallebeek

Summary

The Seventeen Statutes is one of the oldest classical texts of Old Frisian Law. In its late fifteenth century edition, as part of the Frisian Land Law, it was provided with Latin glosses. Analysis of these glosses, which were scarcely investigated until now, enables us to pronounce with more certainty upon the date of both the Frisian Land Law, as a compilation, and its Gloss. Moreover, the glosses to the Seventeen Statutes reflect a considerable increase of ecclesiastical competence, point to certain principles of Romano-canonical procedure and use Roman law texts when applying provisions of indigenous law. This all may indicate a stronger presence of learned law in late medieval Friesland than previously assumed.

Dave De ruysscher and Ilya Kotlyar

Summary

In the County of Holland, in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries the rules regarding security interests in movables changed fundamentally. Rules of doctrine came to be combined with rules found in local law, that is the bylaws of cities and regions. This went together with the re-interpreting of fragments of older bylaws. In 1631 Grotius’ Inleidinghe categorized the lien of the unpaid seller after delivery of the merchandise sold as entailing a reivindicatio. This new rule was adopted in cities in Holland, even though it ran counter the earlier approach that third-party effects of sales in this regard were very limited. Also, the new line of thought that holders with a legitimate title did not respond to pledgees pushed out older conceptions on tracing for some special pledges. In their legal writings Dutch authors after Grotius attempted to construe consistent solutions; in the legislative practice of cities, older rules could be preferred over new ones. Bylaws of cities, to which authors of Roman-Dutch doctrine referred as well, stipulated limits on tracing by unpaid sellers. All the mentioned developments were not determined by changes in the market, even though they could be incited by them. Legal change in Holland, even in the Golden Age of the seventeenth century, was due more to the embracing of academic ideas than to responsiveness to economic conditions.

V.J.M. van Hoof

A Roman debtor and his creditor could tailor their contract of pledge to fit their needs. If the parties specified the pledged asset in the contract, they wanted to restrict the debtor’s right to dispose of the pledged asset. The debtor would transfer pledged assets subject to pledge if he acted without permission of the creditor. The creditor could recover the pledged asset from any third-party possessor. If the parties pledged all of the debtor’s present and future assets, they wanted to enable the debtor to dispose of pledged assets in his ordinary course of business.


The New Temple


On the origin, nature and composition of the partes Digestorum

W.J. Zwalve and Th. de Vries

The present article purports to stress the importance of the legal curriculum in the over-all compilation process of Justinian’s Digest. The basic hypothesis is that, in composing the Digest, Justinian’s drafting committee based its composition on the arrangement of the legal curriculum as it was before Justinian and as it was about to be changed in the process. The basis of this hypothesis is the division of the Digest into seven partes. It is contended that the basic structure of the first five partes of the Digest was predetermined by the legal curriculum, whereas the last two partes are an ‘Appendix Masse’. It is also contended that the distribution of books over all the seven partes of the Digest is the result of a preconceived formula inspired by the mathematics of Diophantus of Alexandria.


Marc de Wilde

In 1615, the States of Holland and West-Vriesland commissioned Hugo Grotius to draft a set of legal regulations for the Jews in their province. This article analyzes Grotius’s draft, entitled Remonstrance. It examines how Grotius understood and justified the rights of Jews and to what extent his approach was novel. More particularly, it shows how Grotius developed the concept of a natural duty to offer hospitality to strangers to advocate admission and toleration of Jews. He borrowed this concept from the sixteenth-century jurist and theologian Francisco de Vitoria, who had used it to justify the Spanish colonization of the Americas. While Vitoria had suggested that the Indians had violated their natural duty to offer hospitality to strangers by refusing to admit the Spanish merchants to their lands, Grotius argued that the provinces of Holland and West-Vriesland had a natural duty to offer hospitality to the Jews who had been expelled from their communities for religious reasons. Unlike Vitoria, Grotius recognized the natural duty to offer hospitality to strangers as the natural foundation of the right to asylum, which applied irrespective of religion. This enabled him to argue that these Jews, as religious exiles, had to be admitted to the provinces of Holland and West-Vriesland, and granted particular rights, including the freedom of (private) worship.