Maintaining the connections between the dynastic court and the provinces was a major challenge for pre-modern governments. The allegiance of governors shifted easily from the centre to the provinces. Ritual and festive occasions, equally important to generate cohesion, were rarely shaped wholly by either side.
Agents & Interactions examines these connections in late imperial China, early modern Europe, and the Ottoman empire. Contributions highlight the different and evolving notions of the governor, the choreography of rulers touring their realm, and the interpretations of sources describing such events. Important intercultural parallels appear, and it becomes clear that the domains of politics and culture cannot be separated. The chapters in this volume suggest important revisions and outline an agenda for comparison.
This title is available online in its entirety in Open Access
Contributors include: Patricia Buckley Ebrey, Jürgen Osterhammel, R. Kent Guy, Helen Watanabe-O’Kelly, I. Metin Kunt, Michael G. Chang, Margit Thøfner, Yingcong Dai, Neil Murphy, Christian Büschges
What holds Indonesia together? 'A strong leader' is the answer most often given. This book looks instead at a middle level of society. Middle classes in provincial towns around the vast archipelago mediate between the state and society and help to constitute state power. 'Middle Indonesia' is a social zone connecting extremes.
The Making of Middle Indonesia examines the rise of an indigenous middle class in one provincial town far removed from the capital city. Spanning the late colonial to early New Order periods, it develops an unusual, associational notion of political power. 'Soft' modalities of power included non-elite provincial people in the emerging Indonesian state. At the same time, growing inequalities produced class tensions that exploded in violence in 1965-1966.