For over three decades, an Ideological Surround Model (ISM) has pursued theoretical and methodological innovations designed to enhance the ‘truth’ and ‘objectivity’ of research into psychology and religion. The foundational argument of the ISM is that psychology as well as religion unavoidably operates within the limits of an ideological surround. Methodological theism, therefore, needs to supplement the methodological atheism that dominates the contemporary social sciences. Methodological theism should operationalize the meaningfulness of religious traditions and demonstrate empirically that the influences of ideology cannot be ignored. The ISM more generally suggests that contemporary social scientific rationalities need to be supplemented my more complex dialogical rationalities. Beliefs in secularization should also be supplemented by beliefs in trans-rationality.
This paper draws from resources in the work of Deleuze to critically examine the notion of organicism and holistic relations that appear in historical forerunners that Jung identifies in his work on synchronicity. I interpret evidence in Jung’s comments on synchronicity that resonate with Deleuze’s interpretation of repetition and time and which challenge any straightforward foundationalist critique of Jung’s thought. A contention of the paper is that Jung and Deleuze envisage enchanted openings onto relations which are not constrained by the presupposition of a bounded whole, whether at the level of the macrocosm or the microcosm. Openings to these relations entail the potential for experimental transformation beyond sedentary habits of thought which are blocked by a disenchanting ‘image of thought’ that stands in need of critique. Other examples of enchanted openings in Jung’s work are signposted in an effort to counter their marginalisation in some post-Jungian critiques and to signal their potential value from a Deleuzian perspective.
Jung explained the possible plagiaristic relationship between Henry Rider Haggard’s She and Pierre Benoît’s L’Atlantide as either cryptomnesia or archetypal inspiration, but he was misinformed about the case and unfamiliar with Benoît’s life. This essay critiques Jung’s statements about Benoît and then considers the case for plagiarism that was published in The French Quarterly in 1919–1920. Neither the typical reply – that L’Atlantide reflects the author’s African experience and historical knowledge – nor the reading of the novel that arose from Jung’s 1925 seminar adequately refutes the plagiarism charge. A depth-psychological reading of L’Atlantide shows the danger of seeking the anima archetype itself rather than experiencing the anima in a relationship with an available woman. But even if literary analogies, including the Circe myth, suggest that Haggard and Benoît may have tapped into the same archetypal vein, the novels’ similarities and verbal echoes cannot be dismissed outright.
The figure of a half-human, half-feline boy appearing in a dream series of a middle-aged businessman suffering from job burnout is investigated from a Jungian perspective, noting its relevance to Jung’s concept of eros as a relatedness principle as well as an example of the puer aeternus or eternal child archetype. Further investigation into the feral boy figure reveals its compensatory function: a reaction to the dreamer’s regression to a more primitive state of self-identity and forced alienation from his business profession and his private life. Additional references to the feral boy from the Mesoamerican Olmec civilization provide evidence of the figure’s identity as an archetypal image of pathos, arousing sympathetic pity that leads to reconnecting the dreamer with his societal and familial responsibilities.
This paper provides a depth-psychological analysis of the mass visions of the Virgin Mary taking place at Zeitoun, Egypt, during the late 1960s. A review of the literature points to a prevailing socio-political approach to examining visions of the Virgin Mary, while I argue that a satisfactory psychoanalytical approach is generally lacking. The interpretation I propose draws on Jung’s theoretical model in Flying Saucers with the aim of merging depth-psychology and historical material surrounding the Zeitoun phenomenon. Common themes and symbols are extracted and interpreted from the empirical material and analysed along with Egyptian social and political data. This study concludes with a discussion on how depth-psychological principles grounded in empirical and historical material could be applied in order to explicate cases of mass visions.