Canada is often held up internationally as a successful model of immigration. Yet, Canada’s history, since its birth as a nation one hundred and fifty-four years ago, is one of contested racial and ethnic relations. Its racial and ethnic conflict and division resurfaces during covid-19 when there has been a surge in racism and xenophobia across the country towards Asian Canadians, particularly those of Chinese descent. Drawing on critical race theory and critical discourse analysis, this article critically analyzes incidents that were reported in popular press during the pandemic pertaining to this topic. The analysis shows how deeply rooted racial discrimination is in Canada. It also reveals that the anti-Asian and anti-Chinese racism and xenophobia reflects and retains the historical process of discursive racialization by which Asian Canadians have been socially constructed as biologically inferior, culturally backward, and racially undesirable. To combat and eliminate racism, we propose a framework of pandemic anti-racism education for the purpose of achieving educational improvement in post-covid-19.
In an attempt to mitigate community spread of covid 19, many school districts cancelled face to face sessions and shifted to online instruction. As communities enacted quarantines, schools were pressed to transition learning environments to students’ homes while policymakers and leaders implemented a number of new policies and procedures. The purpose of this study explored how the covid 19 transformed the leadership of educators in three southwest Texas school districts when instruction was modified to e-learning. This qualitative study centered on the accounts and experiences of 25 elementary and secondary educators from 3 different Title I school districts in southwest Texas. The participants were graduate students in a nationally recognized program for the development of social justice leaders. As a result, this study uncovered how the practice of these educational leaders evolved to serve the Latino students in their communities. This study will highlight how the teachers’ agency helped leverage services to provide the learning opportunity for the learners.
To exert benefits of physical education and enhance the health of teenagers, the idea of Quality Physical Education (qpe) had been put into practice since 1995 as the guideline for the implementation of physical education in K-12 schools in the United States. qpe consists of two parts: the conceptual framework and practical guidelines, which contain four core elements: “Opportunity to Learn,” “Meaningful Content,” “Appropriate Instruction,” and “Student and Program Assessment.” Each core component is broken down into sections, subsections, and programmatic elements, to fit into unesco’s benchmarks, which regulate the overall process and procedures in physical education as minimum standards, offering strong support for educators to design and implement high qpe. In the global endeavor to implement qpe, however there are major barriers, specifically institutional barriers, teacher-related barriers, and student-related barriers which prevent qpe to be fully and effectively adopted.
This article captures the results of a study illustrating the challenges experienced by newcomer youth to Canada in adapting to online learning between March and June 2020. A collaborative research team consisting of a local immigrant-serving agency, local school board and educators, and a group of interdisciplinary university researchers conducted a qualitative study to explore educational challenges from the perspectives of high school-aged youth and parents of elementary school students. We found that the covid-19 crisis exposed the fissures in the education system whereby those most in need of the supposed support offered by the education system were not intentionally included in organizational policies and procedures, thus further exacerbating educational inequities and compounding the pre-Covid challenges students experienced. This study also models collaborative and community-centred research on how educators and school boards could work with community supporting agencies to provide support for newcomer youth during and beyond the Covid-19 pandemic.
The global health crisis caused by the sars-CoV-2 virus has impacted higher education systems worldwide. Emergency remote teaching strategies have been common organizational responses, which came with challenges, particularly in systems that lacked the capacity for digital provision. Building on strategic and crisis management theory and literature, this study investigates student attitudes towards organizational responses to the crisis in public higher education institutions in Poland. Drawing on findings of an online survey completed by 359 students from 61 institutions, this research has revealed that more than half of the respondents were satisfied with organizational responses to the crisis. Instructors’ self-motivation was identified as a key enabler of a successful implementation of distance learning, while their lack of familiarity with e-learning and technology were found as dominant barriers. The findings of this research can support institutions in other contexts to strengthen their commitment to educational improvement in a period of crisis and digital transformation.
This paper takes up Leigh methodological stance of pausing to consider how and whether the U.S. federal government’s theory of educational change, or their plan for educational equity and accountability, is answerable to Black, Indigenous, and students of color in the context of the global pandemic, the switch to remote learning, and global uprisings for Black lives. To discuss the federal government’s current theory of educational change, we (the authors) conducted a policy document review, outlining the U.S.’s educational response(s) to the ongoing global health crisis. The paper reports on current federal law requirements and waivers for: assessments, accountability, reporting, and school identification. We also discuss how the federal educational response is limited for addressing the context and learning of Black, Indigenous and students of color. We practice answerability by positing alternative approaches for educational policymaking in the age of covid-19.
Principal as the key to school reform has been a frequently discussed topic in the research literature. However, few studies have investigated principals’ own values, views and visions and how these may affect reform in their schools. The study reported in this paper intends to fill this void. It is a joint effort by American and Chinese education scholars to explore and examine the profiles, preparation and perspectives of urban and rural principals in China, based on the conceptual framework and research methodology of the American national Study of the Education of Educators and the earlier comparative study of Chinese, American and Australian school principals. A comprehensive principal survey was administered to several hundred urban and rural school principals in China and interviews were conducted with selected principals. Our study findings reveal both similarities and differences in values, views and visions between urban and rural school principals, and a huge gap in the quality and equality of education between urban and rural schools. Although Chinese principals are in general progressive and liberal in their fundamental beliefs and values, they perceive great difficulties in realizing their visions for ideal schools and recognize major obstacles to reform because of the existing school conditions, the national examination system, and certain policy restrictions on their autonomy and decision-making power in schools. Findings from this study provide special insight to policy makers and education reformers and urge them to create necessary policies, improve conditions, and increase autonomy and decision-making power for principals to manage and effect changes in their schools, especially those in rural and minority areas.
Drawing on a wide range of Árpádian- and Angevin-era written records, Myroslav Voloshchuk presents a collective portrait of the inhabitants of the Kingdom of Hungary identified by their countrymen as ‘the Rus’’ (Rutheni) – principally members of the higher and middle nobility known from the Hungarian charters of the 11th to the second half of the 14th centuries. Many individuals in this group came from the old tribal and military-service elite and clergy of the lands of Halych, Chernihiv, Kyiv, and Volhynia and moved to Hungary under pressure of circumstances, eventually carving out for themselves a position of some prominence in the kingdom’s social hierarchy and political affairs. This is the first work to make such an extensive use of Latin documents illuminating the vicissitudes of the life of Rus’ settlers and bearers of Rus’ names or bynames in medieval Central Europe. The study is addressed to all who are interested in the history of Rus’, Hungary, and other countries of so-called ‘Younger Europe’ in the Middle Ages.
In absence of vaccine or a well-known treatment at onset of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), public health measures such as social distancing, washing hands, and wearing face masks were implemented as the most effective strategies to combat the spread of the virus. This article explores the perceptions and interpretations of COVID-19-related regulations and implications of the disease to human life in different contexts. The article adopted a qualitative research methodology, where twenty participants were selected purposively and interviewed, then data analyzed inductively. The analysis of interviews revealed varied conceptualizations and interpretations about the disease and social distancing. Notably, COVID-19 regulations such social distancing and face masking were perceived as imported policy, a misconception that would be attributed to non-adherence to COVID-19 protocols. Further, the study underscore that the disease and policies related to it disrupted ways of social life; infringed on people’s social-cultural rights; and had adverse health consequences. The study recommends a strategic and deliberate reconstruction of the society to restore its sociological functions post COVID-19 pandemic.
The sudden shift from physical classroom education towards emergency remote teaching (ERT) in higher education during the unprecedented global pandemic SARS-CoV-2, or more commonly known as COVID-19, caused an abrupt change in the learning environment for students and educators alike. The disruptive overnight change to convert entire courses to emergency remote teaching caused distress for not only educators, but also students as they had little time to adapt to the new circumstances. While the embedment of technologies in the classroom is not a new concept, this quantitative research examined the impact on perceived student engagement as a result of the sudden change, and how students in higher education in Finland (n = 121) and Thailand (n = 137) responded to this change. One of the primary findings of the research was that students in Thailand indicated difficulties completing group assignments digitally, while, contrary to that finding, students in Finland consented to ease in digital collaboration concerning their group works. As a logical next step, it is recommended to conduct qualitative research to gain a more comprehensive insight into how the views on this particular statement differed significantly between both focus groups of students.