The forty-one years between the Society of Jesus’s papal suppression in 1773 and its eventual restoration in 1814 remain controversial, with new research and interpretations continually appearing. Shore’s narrative approaches these years, and the period preceding the suppression, from a new perspective that covers individuals not usually discussed in works dealing with this topic. As well as examining the contributions of former Jesuits to fields as diverse as ethnology—a term and concept pioneered by an ex-Jesuit—and library science, where Jesuits and ex-Jesuits laid the groundwork for the great advances of the nineteenth century, the essay also explores the period the exiled Society spent in the Russian Empire. It concludes with a discussion of the Society’s restoration in the broader context of world history.
Mantellid frogs present an extensive adaptive radiation endemic to Madagascar and Comoros, being the subfamily Mantellinae the most morphologically and ecologically diverse. The Mantellinae present key innovative evolutionary traits linked to their unique reproductive behavior, including the presence of femoral glands and a derived vomeronasal organ. In addition, previous studies pointed to size differentiation in playing an important role in species’ dispersal capacities and shaping of their geographic ranges. Despite the high phenotypic variation observed in this clade, to date an exhaustive morphological analysis of their anatomy has still not been performed, much less in relation to internal structures. Here, we present a comprehensive skeletal description of a mantellid species, Blommersia transmarina, from the island of Mayotte in the Indian Ocean, which has potentially undergone a process of moderate gigantism compared to other Blommersia species. We describe its intraspecific skeletal variation utilizing non-destructive volume renderings from μCT-scans, and characterize the presence of sexual dimorphism and size covariation in skeletal structures. Notably, we found numerous signs of hyperossification, a novel structure for mantellids: the clavicular process, and the presence of several appendicular sesamoids. Our findings suggest that skeletal phenotypic variation in this genus may be linked to biomechanical function for reproduction and locomotion.
The connectivity of groundwater aquifers is lower compared to surface waters. Consequently, groundwater species are expected to have smaller distributional ranges than their surface relatives. Molecular taxonomy, however, unveiled that many species comprise complexes of morphologically cryptic species, with geographically restricted distributional ranges in subterranean as well as in surface waters. Hence, the range sizes of surface and groundwater species might be more similar in size than hitherto thought. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the range size of surface amphipods of the genus Gammarus and subterranean amphipods of the genus Niphargus in Iran. We re-analyzed the taxonomic structure of both genera using two unilocus species delimitation methods applied to a fragment of the COI mitochondrial marker, to identify molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs), and assessed the maximum linear extent (MLE) of the ranges of MOTUs from both genera. Genus Gammarus comprised 44–58 MOTUs while genus Niphargus comprised 20–22 MOTUs. The MLEs of the two genera were not significantly different, regardless the delimitation method applied. The results remained unchanged also after exclusion of single site MOTUs. We tentatively conclude that in this case there is no evidence to consider that groundwater species are geographically more restricted than surface species.
The putative monophyly and systematic position of Merodon nigritarsis group was assessed based on morphological and molecular data of the mitochondrial COI and nuclear 28S rRNA genes. The previously reported concept of the group has been redefined, and M. crassifemoris Paramonov, 1925 is now excluded. The related M. avidus group is redefined here, including the Merodon avidus complex and M. femoratus Sack, 1913. Species delimitation of morphologically defined species of M. nigritarsis group was well supported by COI gene analysis, with the exception of M. alagoezicus Paramonov, 1925 and M. lucasiHurkmans, 1993. Descriptions are given for three new species of the M. nigritarsis species group: Merodon cohurnus Vujić, Likov et Radenković sp. n., Merodon longisetus Vujić, Radenković et Likov sp. n. and Merodon obstipus Vujić, Radenković et Likov sp. n., and one new species from the M. avidus group: Merodon rutitarsis Likov, Vujić et Radenković sp. n. A lectotype is designated for M. femoratus Sack, 1913, and two new synonymies of this species were proposed: M. biarcuatus Curran, 1939 and M. elegansHurkmans, 1993. Here we review 18 species from the M. nigritarsis group and six species from the M. avidus group and provide morphological diagnoses of the species groups. Additionally, diagnosis of 12 branches (groups or individual taxa) of M. avidus-nigritarsis lineage, an illustrated diagnostic key for the males, and distribution map are provided for the new species.
The present article surveys the early stages of the Graeco-Syro-Arabic Melkite translation movement in Antioch, from the first known translation (the Graeco-Syriac version of the Life of St. Symeon the Stylite the Younger, BHG 1689) dating to 827/8 AD to the Antiochene translators Ibrāhīm the protospatharios, Gregory of Dafnūnā, Chariton of Aršāyā, and Yūḥannā ʿAbd al-Masīḥ (the compiler of the Antiochene Menologion), all of them disciples of the martyred patriarch of Antioch Christopher (d.967). It provides new evidence on each of these translators. Significantly, it re-dates Yūḥannā ʿAbd al-Masīḥ to the early eleventh century.
Being the most prominent philosopher and theologian of his epoch (late 11th-early 12th cent.), Eustratius of Nicaea provoked important theological discussions in the fields of both Christology and Triadology. He was eventually condemned (1117) for his Christological views, but his Triadology faced a strong opposition as well. His Byzantine opponents unfavourable to the Latins rejected his logically consistent approach to the Trinity and developed their own non-consistent (paraconsistent) approach, whereas his 13th-century latinophrone opponent Nicetas “of Maroneia” demonstrated that Eustratius’s logically consistent Triadology is more naturally compatible with the Filioque.
As a prominent illusion, the motion aftereffect (MAE) has traditionally been considered a visual phenomenon. Recent neuroimaging work has revealed increased activities in MT+ and decreased activities in vestibular regions during the MAE, supporting the notion of visual–vestibular interaction on the MAE. Since the head had to remain stationary in fMRI experiments, vestibular self-motion signals were absent in those studies. Accordingly, more direct evidence is still lacking in terms of whether and how vestibular signals modulate the MAE. By developing a virtual reality approach, the present study for the first time demonstrates that horizontal head rotation affects the perceived velocity of the MAE. We found that the MAE was predominantly perceived as moving faster when its direction was opposite to the direction of head rotation than when its direction was the same as head rotation. The magnitude of this effect was positively correlated with the velocity of head rotation. Similar result patterns were not observed for the real motion stimuli. Our findings support a ‘cross-modal bias’ hypothesis that after living in a multisensory environment long-term the brain develops a strong association between signals from the visual and vestibular pathways. Consequently, weak biasing visual signals in the associated direction can spontaneously emerge with the input of vestibular signals in the multisensory brain areas, substantially modulating the illusory visual motion represented in those areas as well. The hypothesis can also be used to explain other multisensory integration phenomena.
Medicine has always been regarded as one of the most significant disciplines, grounded in a humanistic approach, due to its ultimate exposure and connection with people as ‘patients’ and hence a holistic understanding of the patient as ‘human’ is fundamental. In our potentially dangerous times, the instrumental, technical and fragmented ways of seeing knowledge tend to permeate most disciplines, including medicine. This may result in individuals becoming alienated with the ‘self’ as potential doctors, with the discipline and with patients through the monologic discourse of academia or clinics. This article examines this (in)visible global issue in the specific context of Iran, where bilingual medical education adds another level of complexity in dialogic ‘seeing’ of self, knowledge and patients. Grounded in Bakhtin’s theory of dialogue and critical literacy approach to language and literacy, this article explores the affordances of a pedagogical intervention at an Iranian university. This offers diverse avenues for constructing a holistic medical knowledge in the process of becoming a professional through narrative medicine, clinical scenarios, evidence-based medicine and personal experiences. Selected stories of participants’ ontological and epistemological transformations, in their process of ideological becoming, are offered to argue for the urgency of dialogic ways of ‘seeing’ in potentially dangerous times.