The British South Africa Company’s conquest of Zimbabwe in the 1890s opened the country to settlement by immigrants from Europe, South Africa, India and other regions. Using their position as benefactors of the emerging colony, the British-born settlers deployed various notions of foreignness to marginalize the indigenous populations and other groups. Focusing on thirty-three years of company rule in Zimbabwe, this article examines how Indian immigrants contested the British attempts to foreignize them in the emerging colony. Rather than presenting Indian migrants as passive victims of discrimination and marginalization, the study emphasizes their creativity and determination to establish their own destiny, against all odds. It also shows that foreignness in colonial Zimbabwe was a key factor in the politics of power, identity formation and nation-state building. In that respect, the article explores the constructed-ness as well as the malleability of foreignness in processes of nation-state formation in Africa.
Ayvalık town is a traditional and urban formation that is of the outcome of centuries of optimization of material use, construction techniques and climate considerations, that the traces of the Greek architecture is seen. In this study, traditional building designs having various typology is evaluated. It is concerned with the layout of the buildings (orientation, climate, aspect ratio). This study is concerned with the layout of the buildings, such as building orientation, climate, aspect ratio, the proximity of houses (site planning), the air movement, the size-position of building openings, and the building facade (walls, construction materials, thickness, roof construction detailing).
This paper evaluates specific vernacular dwelling types and their response to climate, based on passive design principles that could be adapted to current architectural practice in the area, in order to optimize the relationship between site, building and climate, in Ayvalık.
The interconnection between foreign policy and human rights is increasingly recognized both at academic and practice levels owing largely to the increasing internationalization and pre-eminence of human rights in global politics. In fact, human rights and democracy promotion have secured a place in foreign policy agendas and has gained significance in conflict resolution and peace work as well. Also, human rights norms and principles are recognized and enshrined in international laws and endorsed in regional treaties and national constitutions and has gained prime importance in international relations. As a result, internal and external dynamics of states have been effectively intertwined. This article analyses Eritrea’s foreign policy dynamics and its implications on human rights particularly in the aftermath of the Algiers Peace Agreement of December 2001 that concluded a three years border conflict with Ethiopia. This is done by enquiring whether the conflict and failure to implement the Algiers agreement has anything to do with the gross human rights violations that is witnessed in that country. The article proceeds to analyse the issue in a descriptive and analytical manner by using both secondary and primary sources, including treaties, official statements of public bodies, peace accords and un Drafts,1 and it concludes that the ongoing human rights violations is a product of the stalemate with Ethiopia that has provided a mechanism for continued repression and authoritarian rule in the country.
Previous literature on Korea’s official development assistance (oda) has tended to focus on Korea’s national interest in providing oda, in a way that is biased toward accepting the assumption of a realist paradigm and ignoring the aspect of international cooperation observed in Korea’s aid behavior. To fill this gap in the literature, I examine the impact of the poverty reduction norm in determining Korea’s aid behavior. I adopt qualitative research methods and examine two aspects of the impact of the norm of poverty reduction in Korea’s oda: the incorporation of this norm into oda policy and transformations in aid allocation to African countries. I also conduct an analysis at the level of the system and the unit to identify the factors that encourage Korea to sensitively respond to the poverty reduction norm. I argue that norm internalization has led Korea to increase aid to Africa.