The British South Africa Company’s conquest of Zimbabwe in the 1890s opened the country to settlement by immigrants from Europe, South Africa, India and other regions. Using their position as benefactors of the emerging colony, the British-born settlers deployed various notions of foreignness to marginalize the indigenous populations and other groups. Focusing on thirty-three years of company rule in Zimbabwe, this article examines how Indian immigrants contested the British attempts to foreignize them in the emerging colony. Rather than presenting Indian migrants as passive victims of discrimination and marginalization, the study emphasizes their creativity and determination to establish their own destiny, against all odds. It also shows that foreignness in colonial Zimbabwe was a key factor in the politics of power, identity formation and nation-state building. In that respect, the article explores the constructed-ness as well as the malleability of foreignness in processes of nation-state formation in Africa.
Ayvalık town is a traditional and urban formation that is of the outcome of centuries of optimization of material use, construction techniques and climate considerations, that the traces of the Greek architecture is seen. In this study, traditional building designs having various typology is evaluated. It is concerned with the layout of the buildings (orientation, climate, aspect ratio). This study is concerned with the layout of the buildings, such as building orientation, climate, aspect ratio, the proximity of houses (site planning), the air movement, the size-position of building openings, and the building facade (walls, construction materials, thickness, roof construction detailing).
This paper evaluates specific vernacular dwelling types and their response to climate, based on passive design principles that could be adapted to current architectural practice in the area, in order to optimize the relationship between site, building and climate, in Ayvalık.
The interconnection between foreign policy and human rights is increasingly recognized both at academic and practice levels owing largely to the increasing internationalization and pre-eminence of human rights in global politics. In fact, human rights and democracy promotion have secured a place in foreign policy agendas and has gained significance in conflict resolution and peace work as well. Also, human rights norms and principles are recognized and enshrined in international laws and endorsed in regional treaties and national constitutions and has gained prime importance in international relations. As a result, internal and external dynamics of states have been effectively intertwined. This article analyses Eritrea’s foreign policy dynamics and its implications on human rights particularly in the aftermath of the Algiers Peace Agreement of December 2001 that concluded a three years border conflict with Ethiopia. This is done by enquiring whether the conflict and failure to implement the Algiers agreement has anything to do with the gross human rights violations that is witnessed in that country. The article proceeds to analyse the issue in a descriptive and analytical manner by using both secondary and primary sources, including treaties, official statements of public bodies, peace accords and un Drafts,1 and it concludes that the ongoing human rights violations is a product of the stalemate with Ethiopia that has provided a mechanism for continued repression and authoritarian rule in the country.
Previous literature on Korea’s official development assistance (oda) has tended to focus on Korea’s national interest in providing oda, in a way that is biased toward accepting the assumption of a realist paradigm and ignoring the aspect of international cooperation observed in Korea’s aid behavior. To fill this gap in the literature, I examine the impact of the poverty reduction norm in determining Korea’s aid behavior. I adopt qualitative research methods and examine two aspects of the impact of the norm of poverty reduction in Korea’s oda: the incorporation of this norm into oda policy and transformations in aid allocation to African countries. I also conduct an analysis at the level of the system and the unit to identify the factors that encourage Korea to sensitively respond to the poverty reduction norm. I argue that norm internalization has led Korea to increase aid to Africa.
Chinese agriculture underwent a tortuous development process. Given relative scarcity in land, the trend of continued increases in grain output is currently close to its limit. Meanwhile, along with increasing income and diversifying demand, the agricultural sector needs to change its pattern of development from quantitative to qualitative. Farm size will increase moderately along with urbanization and labor migration, but capitalized large farms should not become the main pattern. Household farming plus cooperation suits China’s natural endowment and efficiency needs better.
中国农业过去经历了曲折的发展过程。目前在有限土地上推动粮食等传统农产品不断增产的农业道路已经临近极限，同时随着居民收入水平提高和需求变化，农业发展需要从数量满足向质量优化转型。伴随城市化进展和劳动力转移，农业会适度扩大经营规模，但资本化大农场不应成为农业的主流经营方式。农户家庭经营加合作的方式将更加适合中国的资源禀赋和总体效率要求。 (This article is in Chinese.)
With the acceleration of the urbanization process and the transformation of the population structure, China’s small peasant economy is breaking away from involutionary growth. At the same time, capital investment in family farms is increasing, leading to the capitalization of family farms and the rise of “new agriculture.” Based on a case study of tobacco growers in a Chinese township, this article demonstrates how capital investment contributes to specialization and scale production in tobacco production and how a capitalized family farm operates, depending mainly on family labor and partly on rented land. As a typical new agriculture, tobacco production achieves the dual intensification of both capital and labor and manages to get out from the involution trap. This article argues that the capitalized family farm is not only a new type of economic subject but that it also shapes a new type of social subject. As the “new peasant,” the holder of a capitalized family farm is a member of a social elite in villages and serves as the crucial social force in the transformation of village society.
伴随城市化的快速发展和农村人口结构的转型，中国的小农经济正逐渐摆脱“过密化”陷阱。同时，农业生产中的资本投入日益增长，家庭农场日益“资本化”，“新农业”获得了空前的发展。文章以中国恩施地区烟叶生产为例，阐述了资本投入对烟叶专业化、规模化生产的关键作用，分析了资本化家庭农场的经营方式：其主要依赖家庭劳动力（少部分季节性雇佣劳动力），并通过土地流转实现适度规模经营。烟叶生产是一种典型的“新农业”，它在家庭农场中实现了资本和劳动的“双密集”，摆脱了“过密化”陷阱。作者认为，资本化的家庭农场不仅形成了一种“新农业”（新型经济主体），更塑造了一群“新农民”（新型社会主体），他们是村庄中的精英群体，对村庄社会转型具有重要意义。 (This article is in English.)
In the 1950s, Chinese agriculture received far too few modern inputs from industry, but in the 1960s–1970s, this situation was significantly improved. The chemical fertilizer industry, crucial for enhancing crop yields, saw substantial development in the later period. More chemical fertilizer was used in agricultural production, and the price of chemical fertilizer relative to agricultural products was falling. The institutional framework in rural China, which underwent frequent changes in the 1950s, was stabilized in the 1960s and 1970s with the consolidation of the three-tiered commune-brigade-team structure and the establishment of the production team as the basic managerial unit. This stabilized framework remained in place until the implementation of the household responsibility system in the early 1980s. Agricultural development in the 1960s–1970s laid the necessary material foundation for the 1979–1984 Rural Reform. Revisiting this history can help us to rethink the interrelationship between institutional change and material factors in a developing economy.
在1950年代，中国农业从工业部门得到的现代化要素为数甚少，而在60–70年代，这一状况则得到显著改善。尤其是对农业增产至关重要的化肥工业，在后一阶段有了长足发展；农业生产的化肥施用量有明显的提升；同时化肥和农产品之间的比价则在持续下降。在1950年代变动频繁的农村经营制度，在1960–70年代则以“三级所有、队为基础”为核心稳定下来，直到家庭承包制实施。1960–70年代的农业发展为1979–1984年的农村改革提供了不可或缺的物质基础。检视这段历史有助于我们重新思考经济系统中制度变迁与物质基础之间的关系。 (This article is in English.)
To remind China’s policy makers that seemingly correct theories in the West can become harmful in China, this article builds a dynamic land-use model, where the limit to land productivity causes the physical, economic, and institutional systems of land use to change inversely in the stages before, in, and after the population trap. The article uses historical data to test the inverse changes, and finds that the English agricultural revolution was a result of a shift of land use first from intensive to extensive and then back to intensive cultivation. In the process of returning to intensive cultivation, the Norfolk rotation system combined planting with livestock husbandry and raised agricultural output and labor productivity by increasing the number of draft animals and the acreage devoted to forage crops. But the revolution was possible precisely because land productivity was much lower in England than in China.
为提醒中国的政策制定者在西方似乎正确的理论在中国可能变得有害，本文建立了一个动态土地使用模型，在其中土地生产率极限使土地使用的物质、经济和制度系统在人口陷阱之前、之中和之后的三个不同发展阶段反向地变化。本文用历史数据检验了这些反向变化，发现英格兰的农业革命是土地使用从集约向粗放倒退然后再返回集约化的结果。在返回集约化的过程中，诺福克轮作制使种植业和畜牧业结合，通过大幅增加饲料作物和耕畜数量提高了农业总产值和劳动生产率。但这一革命能出现正是因为英格兰的土地生产率比中国低得多。 (This article is in English.)