Ustyurtiidae Kaila, Heikkilä & Nupponen, a new family of Urodoidea is introduced. The family is based on the genus Ustyurtia Kaila, Heikkilä & Nupponen, gen. n. The genus includes the type species U. zygophyllivora Kaila, Heikkilä & Nupponen, sp. n. and U. charynica Kaila, Heikkilä & Nupponen, sp. n., both from Kazakhstan. These two species, in particular the immature stages, have morphological attributes apomorphic of Urodoidea. The close affinity is also supported by DNA data based on several markers. We consider this new family warranted due to its sister group position to the remaining Urodoidea and a number of significant morphological differences in wing venation, male genitalia and the structure of the cocoon, apomorphic for Ustyurtiidae on the basis of an earlier published phylogeny. All other recognized genera of Urodoidea belong to the family Urodidae. The closest relatives and phylogenetic position of Urodoidea are not firmly established, but Urodoidea and Schreckensteinioidea have morphological similarities which, in the light of genetic analyses appear synapomorphic and possibly uniting these groups, rather than homoplasious as assumed earlier. The affinities of these superfamilies are discussed.
Lauri Kaila, Kari Nupponen, Pavel Yu. Gorbunov, Marko Mutanen and Maria Heikkilä
Xiao-Long Lin, Elisabeth Stur and Torbjørn Ekrem
For over a decade, DNA barcoding has proven an effective modern tool in taxonomy, evolutionary biology and biodiversity research. Many new species have been discovered and described with DNA barcodes as part of their diagnostic features. Using DNA barcodes, we uncovered a number of potential species within the Tanytarsus curticornis and Tanytarsus heusdensis species complexes (Diptera: Chironomidae) and detected morphological differences a posteriori that support the description of new species. Unusually large intraspecific divergence in COI p-distance (up to 10%) was observed for two species complexes. In total, eight species new to science are described and figured: T. adustus sp. n., T. heberti sp. n., T. madeiraensis sp. n., T. pseudoheusdensis sp. n., T. songi sp. n., T. thomasi sp. n., T. tongmuensis sp. n. and T. wangi sp. n.. Tanytarsus reei and T. tamaoctavus are redescribed, and T. tusimatneous is listed as a new junior synonym of T. tamaduodecimus. The diagnostic characters of the remaining species of the complexes are discussed. Keys to males and pupae are given.
Morgan D. Jackson, Stephen A. Marshall and Jeffrey H. Skevington
DNA molecular data are used to generate a phylogeny for the micropezid subfamily Taeniapterinae. Thirty-two taeniapterine species were sampled, including 10 of the 20 New World genera recognized by Steyskal, as well as one genus formerly treated as a synonym of Poecilotylus Hennig (Hemichaeta Steyskal). Five species from the Micropezinae were included as outgroups. A total DNA dataset of 4705 bp, including mitochondrial genes (12S and cytochrome c oxidase I (COI)) and nuclear coding genes (wingless and CAD), was analysed using maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference. The genus Taeniaptera Macquart was found to be non-monophyletic with respect to the remainder of the Taeniapterini analysed here. Taeniaptera is restricted to the Taeniaptera trivittata Macquart species group, Mitromyia Cresson is resurrected to contain the Taeniaptera grata (Wulp) species group, and Paragrallomyia Hendel is resurrected to contain most species previously considered Taeniaptera. Poecilotylus is recognized as a paraphyletic group awaiting further research.
Ian J. Kitching, C. Lorna Culverwell and Ralph E. Harbach
Lutzia Theobald was reduced to a subgenus of Culex in 1932 and was treated as such until it was restored to its original generic status in 2003, based mainly on modifications of the larvae for predation. Previous phylogenetic studies based on morphological and molecular data have provided conflicting support for the generic status of Lutzia: analyses of morphological data support the generic status whereas analyses based on DNA sequences do not. Our previous phylogenetic analyses of Culicini (based on 169 morphological characters and 86 species representing the four genera and 26 subgenera of Culicini, most informal group taxa of subgenus Culex and five outgroup species from other tribes) seemed to indicate a conflict between adult and larval morphological data. Hence, we conducted a series of comparative and data exclusion analyses to determine whether the alternative positions of Lutzia are due to conflicting signal or to a lack of strong signal. We found that separate and combined analyses of adult and larval data support different patterns of relationships between Lutzia and other Culicini. However, the majority of conflicting clades are poorly supported and once these are removed from consideration, most of the topological disparity disappears, along with much of the resolution, suggesting that morphology alone does not have sufficiently strong signal to resolve the position of Lutzia. We critically examine the results of other phylogenetic studies of culicinine relationships and conclude that no morphological or molecular data set analysed in any study conducted to date has adequate signal to place Lutzia unequivocally with regard to other taxa in Culicini. Phylogenetic relationships observed thus far suggest that Lutzia is placed within Culex but further data and extended taxon sampling are required to confirm its position relative to Culex.
István Mikó, Lubomir Masner, Eva Johannes, Matthew J. Yoder and Andrew R. Deans
The skeletomuscular system of male terminalia in Evaniomorpha (Hymenoptera) is described and the functional morphology of male genitalia is discussed. Confocal laser scanning microscopy is the primary method used for illustrating anatomical phenotypes, and a domain-specific anatomy ontology is employed to more explicitly describe anatomical structures. A comprehensive data set of ceraphronoid male genitalia is analyzed, yielding the first phylogeny of the superfamily. One hundred and one taxa, including three outgroups, are scored for 48 characters. Ceraphronoidea are recovered as sister to the remaining Evaniomorpha in the implied weighting analyses. Numerous character states suggest that Ceraphronoidea is a relatively basal apocritan lineage. Ceraphronoidea, Ceraphronidae, and Megaspilinae are each retrieved as monophyletic in all analyses. Megaspilidae is not recovered as monophyletic. Lagynodinae is monophyletic in the implied weighting analyses with strong support and is a polytomy in the equal weighting analysis. Lagynodinae shares numerous plesiomorphies with both Megaspilinae and Ceraphronidae. Relationships among genera are weakly corroborated. Masner is sister of Ceraphronidae. Trassedia is nested within Ceraphronidae based on the present analysis. Because of this and numerous features shared between it and Ceraphron we transfer Trassedia from Megaspilidae to Ceraphronidae. Dendrocerus forms a single monophyletic clade, with modest support, together with some Conostigmus species. This result challenges the utility of such traditional diagnostic characters as ocellar arrangement and shape of the male flagellomeres. Aphanogmus is monophyletic in the implied weighting, but remains a polytomy with Ceraphron in the equal weighting analysis. Gnathoceraphron is always nested within a well-supported Aphanogmus clade. Cyoceraphron and Elysoceraphron are nested within Ceraphron and Aphanogmus, respectively. The male genitalia prove to be a substantial source of phylogenetically relevant information. Our results indicate that a reclassification of Ceraphronoidea both at the family and generic level is necessary but that more data are required.
Bradley J. Sinclair, Jeffrey M. Cumming and Scott E. Brooks
The male terminalia character system in Diptera is reviewed. The phylogenetic implications of apomorphic changes are traced on published cladograms. New synapomorphies include: anteroventral parameral apodeme for the Tipulomorpha; parameral sheath encompassing desclerotized aedeagus for Neodiptera (exclusive of Axymyiidae); endoaedeagus for Xylophagomorpha + Tabanomorpha. Apystomyiidae are classified as the sister group to the Eremoneura based on four synapomorphies (lateral ejaculatory processes absent, subepandrial sclerite extending from base of hypoproct to phallus, bacilliform sclerites extending to tips of the epandrium and surstyli functionally developed, but not articulated) and lack of eremoneuran synapomorphies (i.e., loss of gonostyli, presence of postgonites and phallic plate). The Diptera sperm pump with a functional ejaculatory apodeme is a possible autapomorphy of Diptera, exclusive of Nymphomyiidae and Deuterophlebiidae. Internal details of the male terminalia of Sylvicola and Mycetobia (Anisopodidae), Hilarimorpha (Hilarimorphidae) and Apystomyia (Apystomyiidae) are newly illustrated and homologies of the aedeagus, paramere and sperm pump of the Tipuloidea are clarified.
An International Journal of Systematic Entomology
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Concise Review Articles on Insects, Spiders and their Relatives Living on Land
Terrestrial Arthropod Reviews contains concise review articles on living and extinct insects, arachnids, and their relatives that use land during (a part of) their life history.
Instead of requesting a historic, exhaustive overview of all aspects of a particular subject matter, Terrestrial Arthropod Reviews aims to provide space for critical thinking and thought-provoking questions. The journal welcomes integrative reports on findings within a certain habitat or organism, but beyond the taxonomic description. Substantial contributions in systematics, such as faunistic updates, revisionary works, etc., are welcomed. However, isolated species descriptions, and new records papers are specifically excluded. Reports on species-species or species-environment interactions as well as biodiversity, conservation biology and the effect on habitats of ecological changes are especially welcome.
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Terrestrial Arthropod Reviews was published between 2008 and 2014. Ceased per 2015.