Jung explained the possible plagiaristic relationship between Henry Rider Haggard’s She and Pierre Benoît’s L’Atlantide as either cryptomnesia or archetypal inspiration, but he was misinformed about the case and unfamiliar with Benoît’s life. This essay critiques Jung’s statements about Benoît and then considers the case for plagiarism that was published in The French Quarterly in 1919–1920. Neither the typical reply – that L’Atlantide reflects the author’s African experience and historical knowledge – nor the reading of the novel that arose from Jung’s 1925 seminar adequately refutes the plagiarism charge. A depth-psychological reading of L’Atlantide shows the danger of seeking the anima archetype itself rather than experiencing the anima in a relationship with an available woman. But even if literary analogies, including the Circe myth, suggest that Haggard and Benoît may have tapped into the same archetypal vein, the novels’ similarities and verbal echoes cannot be dismissed outright.
The figure of a half-human, half-feline boy appearing in a dream series of a middle-aged businessman suffering from job burnout is investigated from a Jungian perspective, noting its relevance to Jung’s concept of eros as a relatedness principle as well as an example of the puer aeternus or eternal child archetype. Further investigation into the feral boy figure reveals its compensatory function: a reaction to the dreamer’s regression to a more primitive state of self-identity and forced alienation from his business profession and his private life. Additional references to the feral boy from the Mesoamerican Olmec civilization provide evidence of the figure’s identity as an archetypal image of pathos, arousing sympathetic pity that leads to reconnecting the dreamer with his societal and familial responsibilities.
This paper draws from resources in the work of Deleuze to critically examine the notion of organicism and holistic relations that appear in historical forerunners that Jung identifies in his work on synchronicity. I interpret evidence in Jung’s comments on synchronicity that resonate with Deleuze’s interpretation of repetition and time and which challenge any straightforward foundationalist critique of Jung’s thought. A contention of the paper is that Jung and Deleuze envisage enchanted openings onto relations which are not constrained by the presupposition of a bounded whole, whether at the level of the macrocosm or the microcosm. Openings to these relations entail the potential for experimental transformation beyond sedentary habits of thought which are blocked by a disenchanting ‘image of thought’ that stands in need of critique. Other examples of enchanted openings in Jung’s work are signposted in an effort to counter their marginalisation in some post-Jungian critiques and to signal their potential value from a Deleuzian perspective.
Understanding The Red Book as an improvisation and Jung as an improviser offers a new approach to understanding the active imagination and the analytic method that emerged from it. Such an approach uncovers the mētic spirit – the spirit of polytropic intelligence – that informs The Red Book and the archetypal figure of Hermes/Mercurius/Trickster that informs all improvisations and will come to dominate Jung’s career. The rhetoric of improvisation in The Red Book conveys that, uncontaminated by the directed consciousness or ego, personae and imagoes arise spontaneously from his unconscious and control him, not he them. Such gestures privilege non-rational ways of making art and knowing the self and world, part and parcel of the paradigm shift that characterizes the 20th century. Jung’s Red Book is on the leading edge of that effort to shift from objective rationality to a rationality that can embrace subjective elements: the unconscious and the irrational, not just the “broad highways” but also the “back alleys” of human experience.
This paper provides a depth-psychological analysis of the mass visions of the Virgin Mary taking place at Zeitoun, Egypt, during the late 1960s. A review of the literature points to a prevailing socio-political approach to examining visions of the Virgin Mary, while I argue that a satisfactory psychoanalytical approach is generally lacking. The interpretation I propose draws on Jung’s theoretical model in Flying Saucers with the aim of merging depth-psychology and historical material surrounding the Zeitoun phenomenon. Common themes and symbols are extracted and interpreted from the empirical material and analysed along with Egyptian social and political data. This study concludes with a discussion on how depth-psychological principles grounded in empirical and historical material could be applied in order to explicate cases of mass visions.