Bringing together evidence preserved by Aristoxenus, Aristides Quintilianus, Ptolemy, Porphyry and the Greek musical handbooks in a unified framework, this article and its sequels show how the reconstruction of the Classical modulation system offered in Lynch 2018 is confirmed by the melodies recorded in the Greek musical documents. Taken jointly, these articles offer the first comprehensive account of the use of notation tónoi in the ancient Greek musical documents that is fully consistent with the extant technical evidence on Greek harmonic theory and with literary testimonies about the harmonic innovations introduced by the New Musicians. The present article focuses on the Classical/Hellenistic harmonic system, whereas its Imperial counterpart will be discussed in Lynch forthcoming 1 and 2. These theoretical analyses are based upon a newly developed database (dDAGM) that collects all the musical notes attested in the standard edition of the Greek musical fragments (DAGM), comprising over 3,500 notes.
This article completes the discussion of the Classical/Hellenistic harmonic system set out in Lynch 2022a. Taken jointly, these articles offer the first account of the use of notation keys in the Hellenistic musical documents that is fully consistent with technical evidence as well as literary testimonies about the harmonic innovations of the New Musicians. This article offers practical analyses and new modern transcriptions of the Ashmolean Papyri (DAGM 5–6) and Athenaeus’ Paean (DAGM 20) – scores that reflect the modulation system of the New Music and its characteristic use of ‘exharmonic’ and ‘chromatic’ notes. The analyses offered in this article are powered by a newly-developed database (dDAGM) and show that these seemingly ‘exharmonic’ notes correspond to the chromatic ‘bends’ first identified in Lynch 2018a. These ‘bends’ (kampaí) ‘distorted’ the central pillars of the noble Dorian harmonía and turned it into its polar opposite: the Mixolydian, the emotional and lamenting mode par excellence.
Traditional wooden houses are an integral part of the identity of the majestic Ifugao rice terrace landscape as the architectural heritage of the indigenous Ifugao people. These traditional houses function as family residences and serve as rice granaries, refuge, and special housing for unmarried people in the community. In as much as the materials used for the construction of the traditional house are sourced from the surrounding wood lots and communal forests, the traditional house serves as an important record of the history and value of indigenous and endemic trees found in the central Cordillera mountain range. This study identified 206 traditional houses in Kiangan town, and from these houses, transverse sections of house parts from the dismantled and standing houses were examined. Thirty-two species of mostly indigenous and endemic trees were used to construct traditional houses across four periods: (1) before 1931, (2) 1931–1960, (3) 1961–1990 and (4) 1991–2020. The Ifugaos consistently utilized the preferred wood species such as Amugawon (Vitex parviflora), Udyo (Pterocarpus indicus), and Itangan (Weinmannia luzoniensis) for traditional house construction. Wood species such as Yakal (Shorea astylosa), Gmelina (Gmelina arborea), and Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) were also identified from recently constructed houses. The disappearance of certain premium hardwoods and a shift to commonly available but less quality wood is noticeable, as the former were over-utilized but never mass-propagated. Finally, a conservation planning workshop on traditional houses was organized among local homeowners, barangay, and municipal officials, agreeing on the following points: (a) creation of an ordinance to protect and conserve existing traditional houses; (b) development of information, education, and communication materials on the importance of traditional houses; and (c) enhanced collaboration and cooperation among stakeholders.
A variety of possible applications of modern technology for music-archaeological purposes are discussed: from studying and evaluating musical finds and acoustical environments through the presentation of pitch structures down to databases, their statistical evaluation and the necessity and promises of dedicated coding.
The website oldestwoodenobjects.net serves as a platform for the scientific community to collect, display and share early traces of wood utilization. It also serves educational purposes, to teach a wide audience about how multifunctional and durable wood can be, when wisely used. The collection of objects is large and diverse, ranging from simple tools for hunting, like spears, to musical instruments of the high culture, such as violins. The first means of transport, dugout canoes or early infrastructure, like water wells, are remarkably old. Due to weathering, early buildings or constructions are poorly or only partially preserved. But some sacred buildings that are still in use today have an impressive age. At the time of writing this manuscript, a total of 211 prehistoric and historic wooden objects from around the globe were gathered and can be compared at the online application. The oldest item on the list is from 300 000 years before present. To continue expanding the database, the community is encouraged to contribute new entries.
Satire and war have a longstanding literal and metaphoric relationship. Satire has long been the medium to criticize war, while also being figured itself as literary ‘warfare.’ This essay examines the interplay between war and satire in two early modern English prose texts, Thomas Nashe’s The vnfortunate trauller (1594) and Thomas Dekker’s Worke for armorours (1609). Both writers contributed satirical works to literary ‘wars’ of the period, but this essay moves away from their literary feuds and argues that Nashe and Dekker’s prose employ sites of war as settings for social satire and to explore how war, like satire, functions a force that disrupts as a means to correct social abuses.