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Grammatical Sketches of Japanese Dialects and Ryukyuan Languages
Volume Editor:
Japanese is definitely one of the best-known languages in typological literature. For example, typologists often assume that Japanese is a nominative-accusative language. However, it is often overlooked that Japanese, or more precisely, Tokyo Japanese, is just one of various local varieties of the Japonic language family (Japanese and Ryukyuan). In fact, the Japonic languages exhibit a surprising typological diversity. For example, some varieties display a split-intransitive as opposed to nominative-accusative system. The present volume is thus a unique attempt to explore the typological diversity of Japonic by providing a collection of grammatical sketches of various local varieties, four from Japanese dialects and five from Ryukyuan. Each grammatical sketch follows the same descriptive format, addressing a wide range of typological topics.

Abstract

Taiwan was one of the places most affected by sars in 2003—but one of the least affected by covid-19 in the first year of the pandemic. Taiwan deployed a centralised approach and has been able to effectively eliminate the threat of the spread of covid-19 through swift decisions and effective action. This paper compares and evaluates the Taiwanese government’s emergency responses to two health crises: sars in 2003 and covid-19 in 2020. The policy responses to both are mapped out on easily comprehensible timelines. The study also explores how one crisis governance influences another—how the mishandling of the sars outbreak influenced early governmental responses to covid-19. These are described in more detail, divided into thematic sections, and accompanied by illustrative images.

Open Access
In: International Journal of Taiwan Studies

Abstract

This essay reviews the influential work of a group of Leftist ‘sex liberation’ scholars who pioneered queer sexuality studies in Taiwan in the 1990s. In doing so, it focuses on their post-2000 political rift with the mainstream Taiwanese lgbt (tongzhi) rights movement. What ostensibly began as a split over views of same-sex marriage has developed into a contentious politics of Chinese versus Taiwanese national identity and what I call ‘tongzhi sovereignty’. In bringing together both national identity and sexual politics in Taiwan as increasingly intertwined sites of contestation, I argue that the two must be theorised in tandem. As a fertile site for unpacking this contentious divergence, I examine and problematise the way that cultural theorist Jasbir Puar’s popular concept of homonationalism has circulated in scholarship of cultural/sexuality studies about Taiwan as a slanted and largely unchecked analytic to criticise lgbt sociolegal progress and, for some scholars, obscures a pro-unification agenda.

Open Access
In: International Journal of Taiwan Studies
Author:

Abstract

This article makes the case for environmental protest aesthetics as part of a decolonial worlding that encompasses a variety of relational performative acts through which creative resistance to colonialism, capitalism, and resource exploitation is staged. These acts are understood as relational because in their graphics, image-text events in social media, and in their appearances at street protests, they refer to a system that they seek to subvert. The case studies drawn on are Fridays for Future, Klima Action Malaysia and the kristang community in Melaka. Inspired by research on worlding, the aesthetics of protest and performative acts these case studies are examined as manifestations of different facets of decolonial worlding, with a particular focus on the production and dissemination of visual material in the context of environmental protest.

Open Access
In: European Journal of East Asian Studies
Buddhist Statecraft in East Asia explores the long relationship between Buddhism and the state in premodern times and seeks to counter the modern, secularist notion that Buddhism, as a religion, is inherently apolitical. By revealing the methods by which members of Buddhist communities across premodern East Asia related to imperial rule, this volume offers case studies of how Buddhists, their texts, material culture, ideas, and institutions legitimated rulers and defended regimes across the region.
The volume also reveals a history of Buddhist writing, protest, and rebellion against the state.
Contributors are Stephanie Balkwill, James A. Benn, Megan Bryson, Gregory N. Evon, Geoffrey C. Goble, Richard D. McBride II, and Jacqueline I. Stone.
Author:

Abstract

Offering a long view on the relationship between Buddhism and statecraft in the Korean context, this paper focuses on the Koryŏ 高麗 (936–1392)-Chosŏn 朝鮮 (1392–1910) transition when popular sentiment toward Buddhist means of statecraft was waning. Commencing with an overview of Koryŏ procedures of Buddhist statecraft, the study continues with an analysis of Chosŏn attitudes toward the region’s Buddhist past and exposes how notable Chosŏn politicians openly criticized Buddhism, situating it as a problem for statecraft and not a support. Revealing how statecraft was subsequently restructured in the Chosŏn to more closely align with Confucian norms than Buddhist ones, the paper ultimately suggests that Chosŏn rulers maintained an arms-length relationship with Buddhists and their traditions as a means of appeasing their populace. As such, the paper argues that the traditional alignment between Buddhism and the state in Korea had always been as much about statecraft as religious ideology or conviction.

Open Access
In: Buddhist Statecraft in East Asia

Abstract

A detailed study of the esoteric turn taken in state-protection Buddhism by the Tang 唐 (618–907) court, this paper focuses on the patronage of the esoteric master Amoghavajra (Bukong jin’gang 不空金剛) (704/5–774) at the court of Tang Daizong 代宗 (r. 762–779). In particular, and using a rare piece of entombed biography (muzhi 墓誌) as its source material, the study highlights the unique role of the “Commissioner of Merit and Virtue” (gongde shi 功德使) at the court and exposes how the person who held this role was both a commander of imperial troops as well as an administrator of Buddhist clergy. Ultimately, the paper positions Amoghavajra and the rise of his esoteric tradition within the Tang need for an imperial religion supported by a Buddhist-military complex and therefore adds valuable new data to the study of religion and state violence.

Open Access
In: Buddhist Statecraft in East Asia
Author:

Abstract

This paper connects the visual depictions of Dali Kingdom 大理 (937–1253) rulers in the Dali-produced Painting of Buddhist Images (Fanxiang juan 梵像卷) with traditions of imperial support and legitimation connected to the Scripture for Humane Kings (Renwang jing 仁王經), a text that was integral to the state-protection Buddhism of the Chinese Tang (618–907) dynasty. Arguing that the expression of the Dali rulers in the painting as “Humane Kings” served to elevate the status of the Dali ruler over and above that of the Chinese Song 宋 dynasty (960–1279) ruler, the study shows how procedures of Buddhist statecraft are constructed in hybrid and regionally-specific ways in order to serve localized political narratives and programs of state legitimation. Specifically, in the case of Dali, such procedures allowed for the independent assertion of imperial authority and cultural distinctiveness against the backdrop of China.

Open Access
In: Buddhist Statecraft in East Asia
In: Buddhist Statecraft in East Asia

Abstract

This study explores the ways in which King Chinhŭng (r. 540–576) of Silla 新羅 (trad. 57 BCE–935 CE) deployed Buddhist symbolism, architecture, and ritual as a means of supporting his rule and legitimating his power. To explore the Buddhist Statecraft of King Chinhŭng, the paper introduces us to the first of Silla’s Buddhist monastic overseers, an emigré Koguryŏ monk named Hyeryang 惠亮 (fl. 540–576), who aided the King in his establishment and implementation of state-protection rituals. Both the ecclesiastical position of the monk and his program of Buddhist statecraft expose important connections between the Buddhism of Silla and that of China; however, much of the imagery involved in the creation of the King’s Buddhist identity reveals an equally important commitment to Indian Buddhism and Indic notions of an ideal ruler. In sum, the study demonstrates that modalities of Buddhist statecraft are inherently syncretic and dynamically re-created across the spectrum of East Asia.

Open Access
In: Buddhist Statecraft in East Asia