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Abstract

Interpreters have often struggled to account for the way in which the author of James employs the figure of Job as an example of ὑπομονή (Jas 5:11). Since a “steadfast” or “patient Job” is clearly incongruous with the book of Job, the Testament of Job is often forwarded as the preferred source of James’ Joban tradition. This article argues that James’ language of ὑπομονή should be read against its wider Greco-Roman literary background, and when done so, the Greek term emerges as an active, aggressive virtue, best rendered “enduring resistance.” The article posits that the author of James has reread the book of Job within this Greco-Roman literary framework, resulting in a congruent, though thoroughly Hellenistic, reading of Septua-gint Job in which the virtue of endurance takes on a newfound centrality.

Open Access
In: Novum Testamentum

Abstract

Ancient crucifixion has been the subject of some major studies in the last twenty years. However, they remain silent on how the patibulum was attached to the vertical post or stipes, either with or without an individual. This issue is addressed in this article. The author describes modern approaches to this issue and suggests that there is evidence that nails were used in attaching the patibulum to the crux/stipes. Moreover, the author suggests that the crux/stipes was not imagined to be always already erected before the patibulum was attached, contrary to what is usually related. The Gospel of Peter implies that both beams were attached to each other on the ground before being raised up, and this practice is attested with similar capital punishments in Antiquity as well.

Open Access
In: Novum Testamentum
Author:

Abstract

In Rev 1:16a, Jesus is portrayed as holding the seven stars in his right hand. The immediate context interprets this imagery as Jesus’s exercising his sovereignty over the seven angels of the seven churches (v. 20). This article suggests that a secondary interpretation is possible in light of numismatic evidence and the larger context of Revelation. According to this reading, the depiction of Jesus in Rev 1:16a functions as a literary device that subverts the message embedded in the Divvs Caesar coin types—a message that promotes the imperial power. By portraying Jesus as the holder of the seven stars in his right hand, the author of Revelation places Jesus far above the imperial power, claiming that Jesus is the ruler par excellence whose sovereignty extends to both the terrestrial and celestial realms.

Open Access
In: Novum Testamentum

Abstract

While many scholars note the presence and influence of Jesus’s teaching in James, this study seeks to focus on whether there are any recurrent words or phrases that may introduce, indicate, or ‘demark’ the presence of Jesus’s teaching within James. This study analyses the presence of the words ‘hear’ and ‘listen’, ἀδελφός language, and the phrases ἄγε νῦν and ἀδελφοί μου ἀγαπητοί and their potential connection with Jesus’s teaching found within the epistle of James. As a result, this study notes the correlation between the use of these phrases and the subsequent presence of Jesus’s teaching, which suggests the potential for these phrases to ‘demark’ or introduce the presence of the words of Jesus in James’s epistle. Consequently, this study suggests that these key words and phrases function in the introduction to Jesus’s teaching within James, highlighting the upcoming presence of a Jesus saying to the audience.

Open Access
In: Evangelical Quarterly: An International Review of Bible and Theology
Author:

Abstract

This article argues that Paul’s narrative about collective πολίτευμα in heaven (Phil 3:20) constitutes a moment of climactic consolation in the letter to the Philippians. This position is reached through an extended comparison with Seneca’s On Consolation to Mother Helvia (Ad Helviam). It emerges that similar narratives of consolation are constructed in the Ad Helviam and Phil 3:15–21. In both texts, adversity is recognised and rationalised, before it is defied then transcended through rhetorical and cosmological arguments. There are, however, also differences owing to Paul’s and Seneca’s different contexts: in particular, the threat of certain Judaizing opponents to Paul’s gospel in Philippi.

Open Access
In: Novum Testamentum

Abstract

The “Western” order of the gospels—Matthew–John–Luke–Mark—is found in a few important ancient codices in both the Greek and the Latin tradition. Previous attempts to identify Greek minuscule manuscripts with this sequence have been inconclusive. This article presents five Greek minuscules which feature the gospels in the Western order. These five manuscripts, along with two Greek majuscules, contain the earliest form of the catena commentary on Matthew, John, and Luke. The analysis of these catenae reveals that the sequence of their composition is reflected in the codicology of these manuscripts, as well as non-standard orders of the gospels in other catena witnesses. It is therefore the presence of the commentary which explains the adoption of the Western order in seven of the eleven known occurrences in Greek.

Open Access
In: Novum Testamentum

Abstract

The controversial account of Jesus in Josephus’s Jewish Antiquities 18.63–64, known as the Testimonium Flavianum, has puzzling similarities to Luke 24.18–24, a portion of the Emmaus narrative. This article proposes an explanation based on established research into Josephus’s methods of composition. Through a phrase-by-phrase study, this article finds that the Testimonium can be derived from the Emmaus narrative using transformations Josephus is demonstrated to have employed in paraphrasing known sources for the Antiquities. Precedents are identified in word adoption/substitution and content modification. Consequently, I submit that the Testimonium is Josephus’s paraphrase of a Christian source. This result also resolves the difficulties that have raised doubts about the Testimonium’s authenticity, with implications for the understanding of the historical Jesus.

Open Access
In: Journal for the Study of the Historical Jesus
Author:

Abstract

This article revives an accentuation of ιαται present in a number of medieval minuscules that has been neglected by most critical editions of the Greek New Testament since Erasmus. It argues that there is good external and internal evidence for reading ιαται in Mark 5:29 as the present tense-form (ἰᾶται) rather than the universally accepted perfect tense-form (ἴαται). The accentuation in medieval Greek witnesses provides both the present and the perfect as viable interpretations. Although the perfect ἴαται occurs dramatically less often than the present tense-form, the Markan text’s use of present tense-form verbs for indirect internal discourse strongly supports reading ιαται in Mark 5:29 as ἰᾶται, a reading that the Old Latin versions confirm. In light of the lexical semantics of ἰᾶται in ancient Greek literature and the OG, as well as the grammatical subject implied by ἰᾶται in Mark 5:29 (which the author argues to be the woman’s body), one should understand the verb as a passive middle.

Open Access
In: Novum Testamentum
Author:

Abstract

This article queries whether Paul wrote Galatians with reference to epistolary conventions for ironic letters. First, the author explores the use of the θαυµάζω + conjunction “epistolary formula” in the non-literary papyri to determine the relationship between this expression, irony, and Gal 1:6. Then, he weighs the evidence for an ironic reading of Gal 1:6 itself before turning to the extant ancient letter writing handbooks to assess the extent to which Gal 1:6 meaningfully parallels the ironic letters in the handbooks. The author argues that while an ironic reading of Gal 1:6 is plausible, there is no evidence that Paul has crafted Galatians with reference to epistolary conventions for ironic letters.

Open Access
In: Novum Testamentum
Volume Editors: and
The four kingdoms motif enabled writers of various cultures, times, and places, to periodize history as the staged succession of empires barrelling towards an utopian age. The motif provided order to lived experiences under empire (the present), in view of ancestral traditions and cultural heritage (the past), and inspired outlooks assuring hope, deliverance, and restoration (the future). Four Kingdom Motifs before and beyond the Book of Daniel includes thirteen essays that explore the reach and redeployment of the motif in classical and ancient Near Eastern writings, Jewish and Christian scriptures, texts among the Dead Sea Scrolls, Apocrypha and pseudepigrapha, depictions in European architecture and cartography, as well as patristic, rabbinic, Islamic, and African writings from antiquity through the Mediaeval eras.