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Abstract

This article explores some of the marketing strategies associated with the British tobacco industry’s sponsorship of sport during the 1960s and 1970s. It focuses on the British cigarette and tobacco manufacturer John Player & Sons and the firm’s pioneering initiative to sponsor one-day cricket, which began with the John Player League in 1969. The league was enormously popular and gained significant broadcast coverage, becoming an invaluable means of increasing public exposure for the company, in the context of the ban of cigarette advertising from British television. At a time when the link between smoking and disease was making headlines, John Player & Sons nimbly deflected attention away from the health issue, and instead consciously repositioned the tobacco company as a generous benefactor of the nation’s sport and leisure. Less conspicuously, but even more powerfully, spokespeople for the tobacco industry actively mobilised influential opinion behind the scenes in political circles. We show particularly how Denis Howell, Minister for Sport from 1964 to 1969 and from 1974 to 1979, became a valuable ally, acting as a bulwark against more restrictive government interventions into the sponsorship of sports by the tobacco industry. This alliance exposes changing industry–government relations and presents new historical context to better understand the way British tobacco manufacturers proactively sought to elide restrictions on their advertising activities from the 1980s onwards.

Open Access
In: European Journal for the History of Medicine and Health
Author:

Abstract

Rudolf Schuessler has argued that sixteenth-century thinkers developed a concept of equal probability that was virtually absent before 1500 and that may have contributed to the birth of mathematical probability shortly after 1650. This note uses additional textual evidence to argue that the concept of equal probability was in fact generally available to medieval thinkers. It is true that ascriptions of equal probability are comparatively rare in medieval texts, but this can be explained without positing a conceptual blind spot.

Open Access
In: Early Science and Medicine
Author:

Abstract

When the former Danish colony Greenland obtained Home Rule in 1979, becoming an autonomous region within the Danish Realm, it faced the challenge of having to establish a comprehensive social welfare system. This article looks at disability care and its interrelations with post-colonialism and national identity formation, as previous practices of medical care and accommodation in Danish institutions were replaced with local solutions. Frame analysis reveals the outlines of the responsibilities of Danish experts for disabled Greenlanders under colonial rule and during the modernization period until 1979. The transition phase of the early 1980s was a central arena for Greenlandic national discourse wherein care responsibilities in welfare policies, disability care institutions, advocacy organizations and the media were framed and renegotiated. The ‘Greenlandization’ of disability care and the respective shift in responsibilities was a highly uneven process that continued to be suffused with Danish norms and practices.

Open Access
In: European Journal for the History of Medicine and Health
Author:

Abstract

In recent decades, historians have made significant contributions to the understanding of the production and circulation of knowledge in the early modern period. This article aims to go further, by demonstrating how a non-medical expert acquired and applied new medical knowledge, and how chronicles can be used as a source to study the reception of (medical) knowledge in the early modern period. To do this, I have used the corpus of the research project Chronicling Novelty which contains 311 early modern chronicles from the Low Countries, written by a heterogenous group of authors from the ‘middling’ ranks of society. The farmer and alderman Lambert Rijckxz Lustigh (1656–1727) tried to make sense of the rinderpest outbreak that spread across the Low Countries in 1713. In contrast to most of his contemporaries, he combined a corpuscular theory of medicine with other forms of knowledge to demonstrate how God’s ‘invisible particles’ caused an epidemic. This paper presents how expert knowledge became part of a complex chain of cultural translation and retranslation in society. Moreover, by examining Lustigh’s explanations in relation to his contemporaries and other chroniclers, this paper offers an additional perspective on the preconditions for the acceptance of new knowledge and change among the middling ranks of society.

Open Access
In: European Journal for the History of Medicine and Health
Author:

Abstract

In March 1970, the first ever medical teleconference connected U.S. aeromedical experts in Houston and San Antonio to an audience of 25,000 physicians in congress centres in West Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. As this article shows, the ‘Medizin Interkontinental’ transmission was a costly demonstration of the latest developments in satellite telecommunications and projection technology as well as a stage for space-age visions of the future of medicine in the aftermath of the moon landing. Audio-visual and space technology became, at one at the same time, the medium and the message of medical futurity. As I argue, the teleconference was an audio-visual techno-spectacle that marked the culmination of the German medical community’s infatuation with futurology at the end of the 1960s, but it was also contingent on the concrete interests of the parties involved, which included the German Medical Association, medical futurologists, nasa, the U.S. Air Force, and the Swiss pharmaceutical company Ciba. Decades before teleconferences and telemedicine entered day-to-day medicine, the convergence of new medical and media technology, changes in medical education, Cold War geopolitics, and pharmaceutical sponsorship created a brief glimpse of a technology-based future of medicine that fell apart once these constellations changed in the early 1970s.

Open Access
In: European Journal for the History of Medicine and Health

Abstract

Since the 1960s, at a time when medicine was transforming Western conceptions of, and approaches to, the end of life, historians, historians of medicine, and specialists of religious studies have delved into death from a historical perspective. In the wake of historiens de la mentalité like Philippe Ariès and Michel Vovelle, studies commonly emphasise the limited autonomy of medicine vis-à-vis religion in conceptualising death and care for the dying. Only in the late eighteenth century, with Enlightenment culture and the secularization of society, were physicians supposedly encouraged to adopt a more active stance on the end of life. The aim of this paper is to survey recent scholarship that revisits the interaction of medicine and religion at the deathbed. In doing so, it presents an alternative to the rather dichotomous interpretation of the rise of medicine going hand in hand with the downfall of religion. It points to problems and sources that might be reconsidered in order to gain a more nuanced understanding of the interaction and reciprocal developments of medicine and religion in early modern Europe.

Open Access
In: European Journal for the History of Medicine and Health

Abstract

This article sets out to challenge the assumption that the pavilion plan hospital became an international standard by the late nineteenth century. This assumption is based on evidence of just a few, mainly British, state and military hospitals. Hospitals constructed by non-British European empires and those by North Americans in the colonised world have been excluded. Moreover, indigenous people in many parts of colonial territories encountered so-called Western biomedical services for the first time in Protestant mission hospitals rather than in state or military hospitals. The article examines several case hospitals built by the Church Missionary Society (cms) in north-western British India and offers a framework for analysing the architecture of Protestant mission hospitals that goes “beyond” a postcolonial approach. Drawing on conceptual tools offered by the field of the history of emotions, the article argues that the missionaries remade the pavilion plan and invented a new form, namely the Serai hospital, to gain local people’s “trust” and “affection”. This strategy was less about “pacifying” the patients and more about increasing their numbers. Indeed, medical missions were “emotional set-ups” that served to change the sensory relationship between missionaries and local people.

Open Access
In: European Journal for the History of Medicine and Health

Abstract

This paper analyses the contribution of the Catholic Church to Spanish hospitals for more than a century, from the last three decades of the nineteenth century to the 1980s, when the health system model changed and when the transfer of healthcare to Spain’s Autonomous Communities was initiated. The refoundation of Catholic Church hospitals can be observed in the last thirty years of the nineteenth century, as the result of the confiscation of Church property that took place during this century. The new hospitals incorporated contemporary scientific innovations and medical specialisation. Over time, the Catholic Church ran a substantial number of hospitals (surgical, maternity, children’s, psychiatric, shelters, etc.). This work of healthcare provision still continued into the early 1940s, when the Church hospitals were integrated into the national hospital system. Catholic Church hospitals accounted for 15 to 17 per cent of the total number of beds in the Spanish health system. The most common were surgical hospitals – each with around 100 beds – located in urban areas. The contribution of Catholic Church hospitals to psychiatric care was notable (30 per cent of all beds for this purpose in Spain). This study also analyses the ten-percentage point reduction in the number of beds and hospitals dependent on the Church that occurred in the 1980s.

Open Access
In: European Journal for the History of Medicine and Health
Exploring People and Nature, 1700–1850
The book analyses from a comparative perspective the exploration of territories, the histories of their inhabitants, and local natural environments during the long eighteenth century. The eleven chapters look at European science at home and abroad as well as at global scientific practices and the involvement of a great variety of local actors in the processes of mapping and recording. Dealing with landlocked territories with no colonies (like Switzerland) and places embedded in colonial networks, the book reveals multifarious entanglements connecting these territories.

Contributors are: Sarah Baumgartner, Simona Boscani Leoni, Stefanie Gänger, Meike Knittel, Francesco Luzzini, Jon Mathieu, Barbara Orland, Irina Podgorny, Chetan Singh, and Martin Stuber.

Abstract

The focus for this article is the approach taken by the famous British nurse and public health reformer Florence Nightingale (1820–1910) to responsibility for care, with particular reference to healthcare as practised in the home. It begins by examining Nightingale’s involvement as a young woman in ‘Lady Bountiful’ style upper-class charitable health visiting in the period before 1850. It goes on to consider the district nursing model designed by Nightingale and William Rathbone in the 1860s as an attempt to adapt this localised model of charitable care to the demands of industrial Victorian cities. The final section broadens the lens to examine Nightingale’s views on religious vocations in care work and the state’s expanding role in regulating the nursing profession. Nightingale’s ideal vision of care combined multiple elements: attachment to a local community, a sense of religious vocation, and the scalability and fundraising of national or governmental organizations.

Open Access
In: European Journal for the History of Medicine and Health