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Abstract

Sufyān al-Thawrī (d. 161/777?) was a major Kufan jurisprudent with a later reputation for special hostility to Abū Ḥanīfa (d. 150/767) and his school and for upholding hadith against raʾy. However, the record of his hadith transmission as preserved in third/ ninth-century collections shows that he mainly collected and disseminated hadith in Kufa. The record of his agreements and disagreements in law as preserved in Muḥammad b. Naṣr al-Marwazī (d. 295/907–8?), Ikhtilāf al-fuqahāʾ, Ibn al-Mundhir (d. 318/930–1?), al-Ishrāf, and al-Jaṣṣāṣ al-Rāzī (d. 370/981), Mukhtaṣar Ikhtilāf al-ʿulamāʾ, shows preponderant agreement with the Ḥanafiyya and a lower degree of agreement with, among others, al-Awzāʿī and al-Shāfiʿī. The biographical dictionaries record few traces of a personal school of law after him. Doubts have been raised, but in the end he is to be counted an adherent of the Kufan regional school of law.

Open Access
In: Journal of Abbasid Studies

Abstract

It is commonly accepted that the definition of knowledge is not among the main epistemological concerns of the period between Plato and Edmund Gettier. Kalām is an exception to the rule. Kalām scholars provide a detailed philosophical analysis of the difference between knowledge and mere true belief. In this article, I am focusing on the analysis of knowledge in one tradition of kalām, Bahšamite Muʿtazilism. I will argue that knowledge is a factive mental state for the Bahšamites. I will also show that the Bahšamite definition of knowledge is a combination of internalism and externalism with respect to justification.

Open Access
In: Oriens
Author:

Abstract

In the context of the Middle East, conventionally, ‘new media’ have been viewed as digital media that have emerged over roughly the past two to three decades. The advent of any new medium has always disrupted the affordances of existing media—a fact widely recognized in historically inflected media studies. My paper explores the illustrated magazine in interwar Egypt. In this case the form of the printed artifact itself necessitated novel reading practices; this made it both distinctive in the field of print culture, and legible by means used to analyze audiovisual and digital media. I explore the illustrated magazine through a close reading of a single issue of al-Ithnayn, a popular variety magazine from the mid-1930s; I show how such concepts as flow, remediation and hypertextuality help us understand the cultural and sensory impact of such materials, and particularly their key position between audiocentric and ocularcentric reading cultures. The significance of al-Ithnayn cannot be reduced to a generic instantiation of what had by that time become a global medium. It also expressed social tensions of its time and facilitated readers’ own negotiations with a broad emergence of new media beyond the magazine itself.

Open Access
In: Middle East Journal of Culture and Communication
Author:

Abstract

Between 1747 and 1834, Durrānī Afghan rulers built webs of alliance to political, economic, and religious elites in Peshawar. The village of Chamkanī serves as a useful case study of these networks. Chamkanī housed an influential Indian merchant family, Afghan landed nobility, and a powerful Sufi lineage. Reflecting the fundamental tension between the Durrānī ideal of universal sovereignty and the reality of diffuse power, these groups both cooperated and clashed with royal authority, and maintained ties between themselves. Ultimately, the most durable legacies of Durrānī rule were left by these local elites.

Open Access
In: Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient

Abstract

The paper examines the akıncıs’ actions and hence the motivation for their raids as essential constituents within the process of Ottoman conquest of the Balkans in the late Middle Ages. Focusing on the raiders and their plundering activities, it asserts that the akıncıs played a crucial key role in the early Ottoman slave economy, as slave hunting was arguably the main economic driving force behind the Ottoman conquest. It hence argues that an analysis of the akıncıs allows for new insights into the nature of the early Ottoman Empire, but also advances the idea that their actions fall within a particular phase of the conquest period. To that end, the authors re-periodize the Ottoman conquest of the Balkans into the akıncı phase, which spanned eight to thirteen decades, depending on the region, and was characterized by continuous slave hunting and destruction of economic infrastructure, and the phase of administrative integration into the Ottoman Empire, which latter process was pursued by other actors, namely imperial elites from the center, and is usually characterized by at least partial repopulation of demographically weakened areas.

Open Access
In: Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient
Author:

Abstract

Although overshadowed by his celebrated commentaries on Ibn ʿArabī and Ibn al-Fāriḍ, Dāwūd al-Qayṣarī’s (d. 750/1351) treatise on the philosophy of time – the Nihāyat al-bayān fī dirāyat al-zamān (The Utmost Elucidation Concerning Knowledge of Time) – is a notable milestone in the history of Islamic conceptions of temporality. Composed around the start of Qayṣarī’s tenure as head of the first Ottoman madrasa, the Nihāyat al-bayān rejects the Aristotelian definition of time as the number of motion in favor of Abū l-Barakāt al-Baghdādī’s concept of zamān as the measure of being. Challenging, likewise, portrayals of time as a flux or succession of fleeting instants, Qayṣarī propounds instead an absolutist vision of time as an integral, objectively existent whole. Qayṣarī’s reassessment of dominant medieval theories of temporality – including kalām atomism and the Neoplatonic distinction between time, perpetuity, and eternity – is thus shown to be a key early example of what was to become an abiding Ottoman interest in time and timekeeping.

Open Access
In: Oriens

المستخلص

تسعى هذه الدراسة إلى الإحاطة بجماليّة الأثر في تحفة النظّار في غرائب الأمصار وعجائب الأسفار لابن بطّوطة (1304–1377م)، بالتركيز على رحلته إلى مدينة القسطنطينيّة في وقتٍ حرج من تاريخها. وذلك عن طريق الحفر في بنية ملفوظ النصّ لتحديد الآثار المحتفى بها من ناحية، والتفاعل من ناحية ثانية مع بنيته التحتيّة غير المكتوبة عبر ملء الفراغات وسدّ الفجوات – استنادًا إلى توجيهات النصّ الداخليّة – لإضاءة الآثار المسكوت عنها والمهملة. وحتّى تتمكّن الدراسة من المشاركة في إنتاج المعنى بشكل يسمح بإعادة تشييد صورة عاصمة الإمبراطوريّة البيزنطيّة في الرحلة، عمدَتْ إلى توسيع أفق مفهوم ”الأثر“ ليشمل مختلف العلامات والعناصر الحضاريّة التي ترمز إلى مجد القسطنطينيّة وانهزامها زمنَ زيارة ابن بطّوطة لها‫.‬

Open Access
In: المركز: مجلة الدراسات العربية