Browse results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 704 items for :

  • History & Culture x
  • Upcoming Publications x
  • Just Published x
  • Access: Open Access x
  • Search level: All x
Clear All
Multidisciplinary Studies in Honour of Theo Maarten van Lint
From pilgrimage sites in the far west of Europe to the Persian court; from mystic visions to a gruesome contemporary “dance”; from a mundane poem on wine to staggering religious art: thus far in space and time extends the world of the Armenians.
A glimpse of the vast and still largely unexplored threads that connect it to the wider world is offered by the papers assembled here in homage to one of the most versatile contemporary armenologists, Theo Maarten van Lint.
This collection offers original insights through a multifaceted lens, showing how much Armenology can offer to Art History, History, Linguistics, Philology, Literature, and Religious Studies. Scholars will find new inspirations and connections, while the general reader will open a window to a world that is just as wide as it is often unseen.
Why devote a Companion to the "mirrors for princes", whose very existence is debated? These texts offer key insights into political thoughts of the past. Their ambiguous, problematic status further enhances their interest. And although recent research has fundamentally challenged established views of these texts, until now there has been no critical introduction to the genre.
This volume therefore fills this important gap, while promoting a global historical perspective of different “mirrors for princes” traditions from antiquity to humanism, via Byzantium, Persia, Islam, and the medieval West. This Companion also proposes new avenues of reflection on the anchoring of these texts in their historical realities.

Contributors are Makram Abbès, Denise Aigle, Olivier Biaggini, Hugo Bizzarri, Charles F. Briggs, Sylvène Edouard, Jean-Philippe Genet, John R. Lenz, Louise Marlow, Cary J. Nederman, Corinne Peneau, Stéphane Péquignot, Noëlle-Laetitia Perret, Günter Prinzing, Volker Reinhardt, Hans-Joachim Schmidt, Tom Stevenson, Karl Ubl, and Steven J. Williams.

Abstract

Sufyān al-Thawrī (d. 161/777?) was a major Kufan jurisprudent with a later reputation for special hostility to Abū Ḥanīfa (d. 150/767) and his school and for upholding hadith against raʾy. However, the record of his hadith transmission as preserved in third/ ninth-century collections shows that he mainly collected and disseminated hadith in Kufa. The record of his agreements and disagreements in law as preserved in Muḥammad b. Naṣr al-Marwazī (d. 295/907–8?), Ikhtilāf al-fuqahāʾ, Ibn al-Mundhir (d. 318/930–1?), al-Ishrāf, and al-Jaṣṣāṣ al-Rāzī (d. 370/981), Mukhtaṣar Ikhtilāf al-ʿulamāʾ, shows preponderant agreement with the Ḥanafiyya and a lower degree of agreement with, among others, al-Awzāʿī and al-Shāfiʿī. The biographical dictionaries record few traces of a personal school of law after him. Doubts have been raised, but in the end he is to be counted an adherent of the Kufan regional school of law.

Open Access
In: Journal of Abbasid Studies
Author:

Abstract

The tradition of taṣliya texts and practices in Sufism constitute an important source of Muslim intellectual and religious history. Previous studies have argued that these texts were more than mere cultural expressions of devotion to Prophet Muḥammad. Following this line of thought, this article seeks to deepen our grasp of the significance of taṣliya formulae in Sufi contexts. Emphasis will be placed on their role in popularizing various mystical-philosophical teachings and prophetical doctrines that shaped Muslims’ imaginations of the Prophet throughout the centuries.

Open Access
In: Die Welt des Islams

Abstract

The extent to which the diacritic layer (taškīl) of the Arabic writing system is employed in modern typeset text differs considerably between genres and individual texts, with many in-between forms not aptly captured by the traditional binary categories of “vowelled” and “unvowelled” text. This article is the first to present a theoretical account of this variation applicable to modern typeset Standard Arabic. It is suggested that diacritics serve three basic functions: facilitation of reading comprehension; facilitation of prescriptively correct diction; and to evoke associations with other texts. Six modes of diacritization in modern typeset text are identified and related to data on rates of diacritization from a corpus of electronically published books. Further lines of research based on this framework are suggested.

Open Access
In: Arabica

This article studies Young Avestan forms in -āiš (formally instr.pl.m./n. of a-stems), (formally nom.-acc.pl.f. of ā-stems) and -īš (formally nom.pl.f. of ī-stems) that are used in contexts where neuter nom.-acc.pl. / collective forms in (a-stems) and (consonantstems) are expected. It is argued that these forms in -āiš, , and -īš are secondarily created pluralizations of original neuter collectives in reaction to the syntactic change according to which their original singular verbal concord is in Young Avestan times changed to plural verbal concord. The choice for forming these newly pluralized collectives with the endings -āiš, , and -īš lies in the fact that these are the plural variants of the singular endings (instr.sg.m./n. of a-stems), (nom.sg.f. of ā-stems) and (nom.sg.f. of ī-stems), respectively, which are formally identical to the collective neuter endings (a-stems) and (consonant-stems). The ‘collective plural’ forms in -āiš, , and -īš can thus be explained through a simple four-part analogy.

Open Access
In: Iran and the Caucasus
Author:

Abstract

Historiography on the sblizhenie effort is abundant, as is the scholarship on the variable geometries of citizenship (grazhdanstvennost’) in reference to Tsarist Turkestan and to other parts of the Russian empire. More generally, the existence of local self-government organs, or zemstva, gradually introduced across parts of the empire from the 1860s onwards, was indeed one of the proxies for the degree of integration of a certain province or gubernia within the imperial fabric. Crucially, the zemstva were responsible for raising and spending a specific local tax, the zemskii sbor, which could be used for various tasks often close to the heart of local communities and their elites, from infrastructure to schooling and public hygiene. In Turkestan, zemstva did not exist when Lykoshin or Pahlen were writing – and were not established even during the revolution. The zemskii sbor, however, was regularly collected. This essay explains how the zemskii sbor was calculated and paid in Turkestan – an aspect still murky in the extant historiography. This is done on the basis of published and archival documents which include quantitative data, especially templates of tax ledgers and budgetary compilations, as well as by commenting on several flashpoints in the history of this tax in the region. The relation between the zemskii sbor and other levies is also clarified. In addition, the last part of the essay identifies how the revenue from the zemskii sbor was spent in Turkestan, and how this changed over time in the last decades of colonial rule. Knowing how the money was spent is relevant for understanding the implications of the absence of local government organs to preside over such expenditure.

Open Access
In: Journal of Central Asian History

Abstract

In this article, I problematize the existing analyses of the 1952 conference on the Manas epic either as a salvage operation conducted by USSR Academy of Sciences or as a locally mounted defence in response to the party-led offensive against Turkic national epics. I argue that notwithstanding the efforts invested in the elaboration of a distinctively Soviet approach to the study of folklore – an approach of a Marxist-Leninist extraction articulated around the concept of “folkness” – in the case of epics the boundary between “folk” and “national” remained blurred and easily instrumentalized, both by the detractors of epic lore and by its defenders. Until the early 1950s this blurred boundary led to frequent and abrupt movements between celebrating epics and castigating them, movements that were as much contingent on USSR domestic policies as on its frantic desire to distance Soviet scholarly traditions from “bourgeois” science. I also posit that because of the uncertain boundary between “folk” and “national” and the propensity of these concepts to feed from and spill into politics and geopolitics, the “solution” to the 1952 crisis, pace Bennigsen (1975), could not have been political. Instead, the 1952 Manas conference helped save epic lore in the Soviet Union only to the extent that it triggered a series of follow-up events at which metropolitan scholars reconceptualised epic lore from folk epics that were crucial for the identity of Soviet nations and the vitality of their national literatures to “epic monuments” that were irreversibly consigned to the past. Such a reconceptualization helped solve some of the dilemmas pestering the work of epic scholars and reassert the renown of the Soviet Union as the land of epic treasure trove.

Open Access
In: Journal of Central Asian History
Literature, Persuasion and Devotion in the Eighteenth Century
In Writing Tamil Catholicism: Literature, Persuasion and Devotion in the Eighteenth Century, Margherita Trento explores the process by which the Jesuit missionary Costanzo Giuseppe Beschi (1680-1747), in collaboration with a group of local lay elites identified by their profession as catechists, chose Tamil poetry as the social and political language of Catholicism in eighteenth-century South India.
Trento analyzes a corpus of Tamil grammars and poems, chiefly Beschi’s Tēmpāvaṇi, alongside archival documents to show how, by presenting themselves as poets and intellectuals, Catholic elites gained a persuasive voice as well as entrance into the learned society of the Tamil country and its networks of patronage.