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Abstract

Germany is hailed as a successful model of facing difficult pasts. Based on ethnographic research in civic education, this article situates Holocaust commemoration within German secularism. It brings together memory, Palestine and African-American studies to articulate how Holocaust memory manages an enduring crisis of citizenship. This crisis is predicated upon the disparity between the ideal of freedom and the reality of ethno-religious difference. The article demonstrates how Holocaust memory has been institutionally folded into secular time leading to a more liberal nation-state. It further explores memorial sites as extensions of secular governance, but also spaces in which embodied forms of memory, such as the Palestinian experience of catastrophe enter and desire an extension of this humanity. This notion of humanity co-produces the figure of the “anti-human.” This figure is enabled by an older strand of antisemitism and has an “afterlife” in the real or imagined body of the “Palestinian-Muslim troublemaker.”

Open Access
In: Jews and Muslims in Europe

Abstract

The Jew and the Muslim are historically among the primary figures of alterity in Europe, the constitutive outsiders who have shaped what Europe is, notably around questions of conflict, migration and integration. However, on the ground contemporary Jewish and Muslim communities have often been at the forefront of critical engagement with these questions, for example with regard to the Mediterranean migration crisis and heightened societal security concerns. This introduction sets out the main questions and themes of this volume.

Open Access
In: Jews and Muslims in Europe
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Abstract

Building upon an ethnographic study of initiatives in Jewish-Muslim dialogue in the UK, I explore the way Muslim participants in such initiatives conceptualise the position of their community in the UK in relation to that of their Jewish co-citizens. I argue that while at first blush my Muslim interlocutors appear to read their community, in some historical time-frames, as being in a position of relative disadvantage in comparison to that of their Jewish counterparts, further analysis of their understanding of the positionalities of British Jews and British Muslims reveals a theorization that conveys a strong sense of solidarity with British Jewish citizens and unequivocally conceptualizes them as a political minority. I also suggest that these comparative reflections on the minority condition bear a productive potential for drawing public attention to specific challenges that different minority groups face.

Open Access
In: Jews and Muslims in Europe
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Abstract

The tradition of taṣliya texts and practices in Sufism constitute an important source of Muslim intellectual and religious history. Previous studies have argued that these texts were more than mere cultural expressions of devotion to Prophet Muḥammad. Following this line of thought, this article seeks to deepen our grasp of the significance of taṣliya formulae in Sufi contexts. Emphasis will be placed on their role in popularizing various mystical-philosophical teachings and prophetical doctrines that shaped Muslims’ imaginations of the Prophet throughout the centuries.

Open Access
In: Die Welt des Islams
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Abstract

In the context of the Middle East, conventionally, ‘new media’ have been viewed as digital media that have emerged over roughly the past two to three decades. The advent of any new medium has always disrupted the affordances of existing media—a fact widely recognized in historically inflected media studies. My paper explores the illustrated magazine in interwar Egypt. In this case the form of the printed artifact itself necessitated novel reading practices; this made it both distinctive in the field of print culture, and legible by means used to analyze audiovisual and digital media. I explore the illustrated magazine through a close reading of a single issue of al-Ithnayn, a popular variety magazine from the mid-1930s; I show how such concepts as flow, remediation and hypertextuality help us understand the cultural and sensory impact of such materials, and particularly their key position between audiocentric and ocularcentric reading cultures. The significance of al-Ithnayn cannot be reduced to a generic instantiation of what had by that time become a global medium. It also expressed social tensions of its time and facilitated readers’ own negotiations with a broad emergence of new media beyond the magazine itself.

Open Access
In: Middle East Journal of Culture and Communication
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Abstract

For many years, media and political discourses in Austria have claimed that the Muslim population rarely takes pluralist positions, but instead adopts a negative attitude towards other faiths and people of another religion. The Islamist terror act that took place in Vienna on 2 November 2020 fuelled this stereotype. In order to approach this debate objectively, this article examines Muslims’ attitudes towards the religious other in an evidence-based manner. For this purpose, an empirical data set has been reprocessed and reanalysed. The present article reveals the ways in which exclusivist, inclusivist and pluralist attitudes are taken by Muslims; which religious schemes they prefer; and how they interact with non-Muslims in their social environments. In this way, the article sheds light on the diversity of Muslims’ positions regarding the religious other and people of another faith; the impact of contextual conditions; and the role of media and its reception.

Open Access
In: Journal of Muslims in Europe
Author:

Abstract

Religious majoritarianism was established in Turkey with the fall of the Ottoman Empire. The Diyanet became the new home for the Ottoman Sunni ulema and supported the implementation of Sunni majoritarianism by assimilating minorities, e.g. Alevis. With the AKP government in power in the last decades in Turkey, Turkish majoritarianism has come to the fore. Turkish majoritarianism consists of Sunni Islam along with Turkish cultural and political dimensions. Diyanet imams function as important transmitters of Turkish majoritarianism to the Muslim community. At the same time, imams in Germany are seen as mediators for German integration policies. German politicians set the framework for integration with the expression ‘majority society’ (Mehrheitsgesellschaft) in policies regarding Islam, although a concrete definition of this seems to be problematic. Elements of Christian religion and German culture are used as elements in the construction of a ‘majority society’.

Open Access
In: Journal of Muslims in Europe
In this volume amulets and talismans are studied within a broader system of meaning that shapes how they were manufactured, activated and used in different networks. Text, material features and the environments in which these artifacts circulated, are studied alongside each other, resulting in an innovative approach to understand the many different functions these objects could fulfil in pre-modern times. Produced and used by Muslims and non-Muslims alike, the case studies presented here include objects that differ in size, material, language and shape. What the articles share is an all-round, in-depth approach that helps the reader understand the complexity of the objects discussed and will improve one’s understanding of the role they played within pre-modern societies.

Contributors
Hazem Hussein Abbas Ali, Gideon Bohak, Ursula Hammed, Juan Campo, Jean-Charles Coulon, Venetia Porter, Marcela Garcia Probert, Anne Regourd, Yasmine al-Saleh, Karl Schaefer and Petra M. Sijpesteijn.
In: Amulets and Talismans of the Middle East and North Africa in Context
In: Amulets and Talismans of the Middle East and North Africa in Context