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Qarakhanid Roads to China reconsiders the diplomacy, trade and geography of transcontinental networks between Central Asia and China from the 10th to the 12th centuries and challenges the concept of “the Silk Road crisis” in the period between the fall of the Tang Dynasty and the rise of the Mongols. Utilizing a broad range of Islamic and Chinese primary sources together with archaeological data, Dilnoza Duturaeva demonstrates the complexity of interaction along the Silk Roads and beyond that, revolutionizes our understanding of the Qarakhanid world and Song-era China’s relations with neighboring regions.

Abstract

At the beginning of the 11th century, the Qarakhanid roads to China passed through Dunhuang, which is located at the western edge of the Hexi Corridor in China’s pre-sent-day Gansu Province. Qarakhanid delegations apparently had to pass through Turfan, which was under the rule of the Uyghur Idiquts, to arrive in the Khitan realm. Qarakhanid envoys and merchants also used an alternative road via Tibet into Song China, avoiding the passage along the Hexi Corridor. This chapter exam-ines Qarakhanid contacts with polities in Dunhuang, Turfan and Tibet.

Open Access
In: Qarakhanid Roads to China

Abstract

Qarakhanid relations with the Ghaznavids are well documented, especially compared to other polities in the Islamic world. During the same period, the Qarakhanids were the nearest Muslim neighbors of the Liao emperors in China, who sought to establish contacts with the Islamic world more than other Sinitic dynasties of the era. Therefore, the chapter discusses these two cases to illustrate the role of the Qarakhanids in Sino-Islamic relations.

Open Access
In: Qarakhanid Roads to China
In: Qarakhanid Roads to China

Abstract

This chapter utilizes Song records on the Qarakhanids and introduces heretofore-unknown sides of Qarakhanid commercial diplomacy in China, including discussion on the presence of women in official Qarakhanid delegations and female mobility in eleventh-century Turkic society. It also presents Qarakhanid envoys as cartogra-phers at the Song court and discusses Song dynasty maps that depicted Qarakhanid territories.

Open Access
In: Qarakhanid Roads to China
In: Qarakhanid Roads to China

Abstract

The chapter is structured around Chinese records on the Qarakhanid allies in the Turko-Islamic world. In particular, the author discusses passages on foreign peoples and places in Chinese sources that may refer to the Ghaznavids, Saljuqs and Khwarazmshahs.

Open Access
In: Qarakhanid Roads to China

Abstract

This chapter deals with the Qarakhanid trade routes and networks beyond the Silk Road by analyzing Song dynasty texts on commodities transported by Qarakhanid caravans to China involving Central Asian sources and relevant archaeological data. The author presents the Silk Road artifacts and objects produced during the Liao and Song periods in China and introduces Qarakhanid activities along the Amber, Frankincense and Tea Roads.

Open Access
In: Qarakhanid Roads to China

Abstract

This chapter discusses the Qarakhanids, their main allies, and their trade partners in the Turko-Islamic world, including the Volga Bulghars, Ghaznavids, Saljuqs, and Khwarazmshahs, along with the Qarakhanid early history, which is important for an understanding of their situation, located between China and the Islamic world. The chapter also outlines the Qarakhanids’ neighbors and trade partners in Tibet and China.

Open Access
In: Qarakhanid Roads to China
Author:

Abstract

This article considers a period of Byzantine numismatic history where production at its main mint, in Constantinople, appears to cease altogether for at least 24 years, and arguably 26 or more years. It almost needs no stating that this is extraordinarily unusual in the numismatic record, and yet the topic has never been covered in more than a paragraph before. In this article, based upon my paper of the same title given to the International Congress of Byzantine Studies in Nicosia in January 2020, I will explore the problem, setting it in its historical context and contrasting this cessation with others that scholars are aware of. I will argue that the pause in production was not accidental and can neither be explained in the context of the monetary contraction of the late seventh to early ninth centuries, nor by archaeological quirk. Rather, I will contend that this apparent cessation was a deliberate policy of the Empress Theodora and the regency council for Michael III, and that its subsequent continuation under the Caesar Bardas was perhaps more incidental, until the coronation of Basil brought the drive to restart production in Michael and Basil’s names.

Open Access
In: Eurasian Studies