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Composed of original articles from academics and policy notes from practitioners, this book attempts to draw up the state of multilateralism through the UN model and identify potential ways to address its challenges and shortcomings. The contributors question the role of multilateralism, sometimes accused of being fragmented, inefficient and unrepresentative, and its impact on global governance, democracy, trade and investment, the environment, and human rights. Since most of the authors are not from the UN system, the content of the contributions provides an external and more neutral assessment of the UN’s ability to continue to function today as a serious actor within a global movement in favor of a renewed form of multilateralism.
The definition of a healthcare system evolves continuously, becoming broader and more complex with each rendering. Healthcare systems can consist of many different elements, including but not limited to: access to comprehensive medical care, health promotion, disease prevention, institutional framework, financing schemes, government responsibility over health, etc. In light of its broad classification of healthcare, this book focuses on a wide spectrum of health-related issues ranging from risk factors for disease to medical treatment and possible frameworks for healthcare systems. Aging populations, increasing costs of healthcare, advancing technology, and challenges created by the COVID-19 pandemic require an innovative conceptual and methodological framework. By combining the experience and effort of researchers from a variety of fields including mathematics, medicine and economics, this book offers an interdisciplinary approach to studying health-related issues. It contributes to the existing literature by integrating the perspective of treatment with the economic determinants of health care outcomes, such as population density, access to financial resources and institutional frameworks. It also provides new evidence regarding the pharmaceutical industry including innovation, international trade and company performance.

Contributors are: Sayansk Da Silva, Joe Feinglass, Scott W. Hegerty, Joseph E. Hibdon, Jr, Arkadiusz Michał Kowalski, Małgorzata Stefania Lewandowska, Dawid Majcherek, Ewelina Nojszewska, Izabela Pruchnicka-Grabias, Agata Sielska and Julian Smółka.
The 14th thematic volume of International Development Policy provides perspectives through case studies from the global Souths focusing on the challenges and opportunities of governing migration on the subnational, national, regional and international levels. Bringing together some thirty authors from Africa, Latin America and Asia, the book explores existing and new policies and frameworks in terms of their successes and best practices, and looks at them through the lens of additional challenges, such as those brought on by the COVID-19 pandemic, the rise of nationalisms and an increase in xenophobia. The chapters also take the ‘5 Ps’ approach to sustainable development (people, planet, prosperity, peace and partnerships) and assess how migration policies serve sustainable development in a rapidly evolving context.

Contributors are Yousra Abourabi, Gabriela Agosto, Belkis Aracena, Andrea Fernández Benítez, Macarena Chepo, Amanda Coffie, Jonathan Crush, María del Consuelo Dávila Pérez, Dêlidji Eric Degila, Jenny Lind Elmaco, René Leyva Flores, Luisa Feline Freier, Silvia Núñez García, Marcela Pezoa González, Binod Khadria, Ariel González Levaggi, Wei Li, Meixin Liu, Ling Ma, Ratnam Mishra, Daniel Naujoks, Claudia Padilla, Karol Rojas, Fabiana Rubinstein, Yining Tan, Narender Thakur, Gerasimos Tsourapas, Valeria Marina Valle and Jossette Iribarne Wiff.

Abstract

Because limited financial access has been shown to be associated with adverse public health outcomes in the United States, modeling this access and identifying geographic areas where it is deficient is essential. Recent research on the locations of bank branches has identified thresholds below which a given area can be considered to be a “banking desert.” Thus far, most analyses of the country as a whole have tended to focus on minimum distances from geographic areas to the nearest bank, while a recent density-based analysis focused only on the city of Chicago. As such, there is not yet a nationwide study of bank densities for the entire United States. This study calculates banks per square mile for US Census tracts over ten different ranges of population density. One main finding is that bank density is sensitive to the measurement radius used (for example, density in urban areas can be calculated as the number of banks within two miles, while some rural areas require a 20-mile radius). This study then compiles a set of lower 5- and 10-percent thresholds that might be used to identify “banking deserts” in various urban, suburban, and rural areas; these largely conform to the findings of previous analyses. Finally, adjusting for population density using regression residuals, this chapter examines whether an index of economic deprivation is significantly higher in the five percent of “desert” tracts than in the remaining 95 percent. The differences are largest – and highly significant – in the densest tracts in large urban areas.

Open Access
In: Economics and Mathematical Modeling in Health-Related Research
In: Economics and Mathematical Modeling in Health-Related Research

Abstract

The aim of this chapter is to identify a pattern of international trade in medical products in the context of tackling the COVID-19 pandemic. Medical products are grouped according to classifications of the World Trade Organization into four categories: pharmaceuticals, medical equipment, medical consumables, and personal protective products. This study focuses on the international trade of pharmaceuticals, which represents over a half of the total value of medical product trade. The United States, Germany, and Switzerland are key players regarding exports of medical products; however, the leaders differ in exports of the four medical product groups. Switzerland holds a predominant position in exports of pharmaceuticals, the US leads in exports of both medical equipment and medical consumables, while China is the world’s top exporter of personal protective products, occupying the 7th place in total exports of medical products. The analysis of Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA) indices showed that high trade values do not necessarily translate into specialization in trade. Switzerland and Ireland are the world’s leaders in terms of relative trade specialization in medical products, in particular they enjoy high comparative advantages in trade of pharmaceuticals. The US and China, although both have relative specialization in overall medical exports, do not reveal comparative advantages in trade of pharmaceuticals.

Open Access
In: Economics and Mathematical Modeling in Health-Related Research

Abstract

The chapter focuses on the development of healthcare and pharmaceutical industry analyzed from the perspective of the innovation divide in the world economy, as there are traditionally countries with developed national innovation systems, playing the role of technology leaders, and those with developing innovation systems, acting as innovation followers. However, together with significant structural changes taking place in the world economy, we observe a gradual shift of high-technology industries, such as the pharmaceutical industry, to emerging economies, among which China is making a considerable progress in innovation performance. The objective of this research is to measure the development of healthcare and pharmaceutical industry in economies traditionally playing the role of technological followers, that is, China and Poland, and economies positioned as innovation leaders, that is, the EU and the USA. According to the results, the development of the healthcare sector in emerging economies, in particular China, is positively associated with economic growth, and innovations in the pharmaceutical industry are critical to the present and future advances in healthcare.

Open Access
In: Economics and Mathematical Modeling in Health-Related Research
Author:

Abstract

The aim of this chapter is to search for common institutional traits that improve the efficiency of healthcare systems in developed countries. The study joins the broad discussion on the topic of limiting costs and accelerating effects of healthcare systems. An extensive review of the literature and statistical sources is used to create the institutional framework for healthcare systems in the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, Sweden, Singapore, and Poland – developed countries selected for differences in socio-economic conditions of health care as well as diverse models of capitalism. Based on the characteristics specified during research, a comparative analysis of institutional traits was performed. This allowed the identification of similarities that improve the efficiency of healthcare systems in developed countries (as measured by the provision of satisfactory services at acceptable levels of cost). The institutional traits and patient navigation within the healthcare systems of Singapore and Sweden appear to be most effective in increasing system efficiency. Other selected features from the remaining countries were also brought up. Wide implementation of the presented institutional traits may help reduce the burden of health care costs while maintaining high quality services.

Open Access
In: Economics and Mathematical Modeling in Health-Related Research
In: Economics and Mathematical Modeling in Health-Related Research

Abstract

In Horizon 2020, the biggest European Union research and innovation funding program with of budget of nearly €80 billion for the period 2014–2020, one of challenges is Health, Demographic Change and Wellbeing which “aims to keep older people active and independent for longer and support the development of new, safer and more effective interventions. [It] also contributes to the sustainability of health and care systems” (EuroAccess, 2022). The aim of this chapter is to investigate how effective the European Union investments are, taking into account the measurable outcomes in accordance with the expected targets. The analysis is based on the input financial data obtained from EU Contact Points covering 314 Health projects completed by December 2020. The output data are divided into four groups: economic (patents, prototypes); academic (publications, PhD dissertations), health (new drugs, new healthcare solutions, final reports, conferences), and media (press releases). Data are collected in the Cordis project database and matched with financial data. The results show that such an assessment has multiple drawbacks and does not provide a rich picture of the program outcomes, leading to the conclusion that more advanced and holistic techniques have to be implemented, especially those based on big data analysis.

Open Access
In: Economics and Mathematical Modeling in Health-Related Research