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Sehen und Wahrnehmen in Optik, Naturforschung und Ästhetik des 17. und 18. Jahrhunderts
Author:
Der Epoche der Aufklärung wird nicht nur eine besondere Vorliebe für den Sehsinn und das Licht nachgesagt, sondern auch ein bestimmtes ‚Wahrnehmungsmodell‘, das von dem Topos des kalten, distanzierten und klassifizierenden Blicks geprägt sei. Ausgehend von einem vereinzelt formulierten Zweifel an dieser Zuordnung sowie neueren Tendenzen in der Aufklärungsforschung geht die vorliegende Arbeit der Frage nach, ob sich ein solches Wahrnehmungsmodell im 17. und 18. Jahrhundert tatsächlich nachweisen lässt. Was wussten und wie dachten Naturforscher, Philosophen oder Optiker über das Auge und die Funktionsweise des menschlichen (und tierischen) Sehens? Es kann gezeigt werden, dass sich im Zeitraum von 1604 bis 1778 ein vielschichtiger Diskurs über Möglichkeiten und Grenzen der sinnlichen Empfindung entwickelt, der lange vor 1750 die physisch-psychische und kulturelle Bedingtheit des Sehens ins Zentrum rückt.
In: Die „krumme Bahn der Sinnlichkeit“
In: Die „krumme Bahn der Sinnlichkeit“
In: Die „krumme Bahn der Sinnlichkeit“
In: Die „krumme Bahn der Sinnlichkeit“
In: Die „krumme Bahn der Sinnlichkeit“

Abstract

The study of the interdependence of grammar and logic at the beginning of the twelfth century is a difficult subject and progress here has been slow. With the recent publication of the Notae Dunelmenses, however, we are now able to see rather more clearly how closely the two disciplines were bound to one another. The following article draws upon this newly published material and on unpublished material from contemporary commentaries on Aristotle’s Categories to investigate how the grammarians’ account of number was reconciled with that given by Aristotle. It considers in particular the problem of the meaning of numerical terms such as ‘pair’ (binarius) and of collective names such as ‘people’ (populus) and how attempting to solve it shaped thinking about the metaphysics of number.

Open Access
In: Vivarium
A Descriptive Bibliography of the Works Published in the Seventeenth Century
In Printing Spinoza Jeroen van de Ven systematically examines all seventeenth-century printed editions of Spinoza’s writings, published between 1663 and 1694, as well as their variant ‘issues’. In focus are Spinoza’s 1663 adumbration of René Descartes’s ‘Principles of Philosophy’ with his own ‘Metaphysical Thoughts’, the ‘Theological-Political Treatise’ (1670), and the posthumous writings (1677), including the famously-known ‘Ethics’.
Van de Ven’s descriptive bibliography studies, contextualizes, and records all aspects of the publication history of Spinoza’s writings from manuscript to print and assesses their immediate reception. It discusses the printed books’ codicology, philology, typographical and textual relationships, illustration programmes, as well as their dissemination in early Enlightenment Europe, in view of the physical aspects of 1,246 extant copies and their provenance.
Author:

Abstract

This article investigates the philosophical elaboration of the concept of “perfectional form” (forma perfectionalis) in Dietrich of Freiberg’s works. Although Dietrich draws on the traditional notion of perfection to a certain extent, it appears that in his view, what he calls perfectional forms represent a special type of form distinct from the classical division between substantial and accidental forms. The main part of the article analyzes the different uses of this concept made by Dietrich, from his theory of light to his views on the essence of the intellect. The final part of this study aims to evaluate the influence of Dietrich’s theory on the so-called German Dominican school. It is argued that, while Dietrich’s influence on Nicholas of Strasbourg is possible but cannot be firmly established, his theory was explicitly taken up and extended to a more metaphysical dimension by Berthold of Moosburg.

Open Access
In: Vivarium
In: Printing Spinoza