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أخلاق العناية في الإسلام: الرعاية الصحية عند نهاية العمر والاحتضار والموت
Volume Editor:
Modern biomedical technologies managed to revolutionise the End-of-Life Care (EoLC) in many aspects. The dying process can now be “engineered” by managing the accompanying physical symptoms or by “prolonging/hastening” death itself. Such interventions questioned and problematised long-established understandings of key moral concepts, such as good life, quality of life, pain, suffering, good death, appropriate death, dying well, etc. This volume examines how multifaceted EoLC moral questions can be addressed from interdisciplinary perspectives within the Islamic tradition.

Contributors
Amir Abbas Alizamani, Beate Anam, Hamed Arezaei, Asma Asadi, Pieter Coppens, Hans Daiber, Khalid Elzamzamy, Mohammed Ghaly, Hadil Lababidi, Shahaboddin Mahdavi, Aasim Padela, Rafaqat Rashid and Ayman Shabana.

تمكنت التكنولوجيا الحديثة في المجالات الطبية والحيوية من إحداث ثورة في مجال الرعاية الصحية عندما يكون المريض على مشارف نهاية العُمْر. فأصبح من الممكن الآن «هندسة» بعض جوانب مرحلة الاحتضار، وذلك بإدارة الأعراض الجسدية المصاحبة ومحاولة تأخير أو تعجيل حدث الوفاة. وقد أثار هذا النوع من التدخلات الطبية أسئلة وإشكالات معقدة حول عدد من المفاهيم الأخلاقية ضاربة الجذور في التراث الإسلامي خاصة، وفي الإرث الإنساني عامة، كمفاهيم: الحياة الطيبة وجودة الحياة والألم والمعاناة والميتة الصالحة. تقدم البحوث المنشورة في هذا الكتاب نماذج لكيفية معالجة هذه الأسئلة والإشكالات المتعددة الجوانب من خلال النظر في عدد من العلوم الإسلامية والمجالات المعرفية ذات الصلة.

المساهمون
حامد آرضائي، وأسماء أسدي، وبياته أنعم، وعاصم پادلا، وهانس دايبر، ورفقات رشيد، وخالد الزمزمي، وأمير عباس علي زماني، وأيمن شبانة، ومحمد غالي، وپيتر كوپنس، وهديل لبابيدي، وشهاب الدين مهدوي.
In: Journal of Islamic Ethics

Abstract

This paper will try to present and discuss Said Nursi’s (d. 1960) ethics of compassion and the possibility of a new ethics of compassion derived from the Qurʾānic Weltanschauung. It will start with a slight detour in the history of philosophy to keep the evolution of an ethics of compassion in perspective. Then, it will deal with Said Nursi’s perception of compassion as he discovers mercy and compassion as universal values manifested by all creatures. For him, like al-Ghazālī (d. 505/1111), Ibn ʿArabī (d. 638/1240), and Rūmī (d. 672/1273), the existence and reality of divine mercy are as clear as the sun. Therefore, the compassion observed in humans, animals, and plants reflects and indicates universal compassion: it is from God. The paper’s primary focus will be on Nursi’s treatise on flies.

Open Access
In: Journal of Islamic Ethics

Abstract

Recurrent and concurrent crises call for new development paradigms, as dominant theories of economic development are not fostering equity or sustainability. We argue that part of the reason is that the conceptualization of development, and the resulting metrics driving decision-making, are narrow. Building on work that proposes adding values/ethics as a fourth pillar to development, along with economic, environmental, and social pillars, this article presents an Islamic perspective of how values-based development would differ from the dominant, contemporary forms. While rooted in a specific perspective and worldview, it has great relevance as approximately a quarter of humanity adheres to the faith. We offer a holistic, values-based approach to development, drawing on classical foundations and contemporary lessons, rooted in a different epistemic and ideological orientation. On this basis, we highlight five values that could be the foundation for re-orienting development: vicegerency, justice, excellence, tranquility, and freedom. Integrating these values in a fourth, values-based pillar of development alters the conceptualization and the metrics of development, resulting in processes driven by different objectives for individuals and societies.

Open Access
In: Journal of Islamic Ethics

Abstract

The current study elaborates on the place, status and functions of the concept of ābirū in Shīʿī religious discourse in contemporary Iran. Its main source material has been selected from a variety of rulings (fatwās) and other type of statements delivered by Iranian marājiʿ taqlīd (sources of emulation). By emphasizing the significance of the concept of ābirū in the Iranian tradition and its reception within the Shīʿī tradition, this study outlines the main functions attributed to the idea of ‘good reputation’ and ‘positive social image’ in contemporary Iranian religious jurisprudence. The analysis of the rulings issued by Iranian clergy allows one to distinguish how the idea of ābirū influences verdicts in different aspects of the life of a believer – personal, ethical, legal and political. The study reveals the flexible way in which this moral concept is being incorporated into judgements which, in turn, may result in a novel and nuanced understanding of many Islamic principles, especially in socio-political perspectives.

Open Access
In: Journal of Islamic Ethics

الخلاصة

‫تعترض التنبؤ الجيني في العلم الحديث تساؤلات عن مدى كونه يتعارض مع الموقف الإسلامي من الغيب، حيث وردت نصوص تحرم أنماطًا من التنبؤ بالغيب، فهل ينطبق على التنبؤ الجيني ما ينطبق على التنبؤ بالغيب؟ تناقش هذه الدراسة هذا الموضوع من خلال ثلاثة محاور، الأول: تحرير مفهوم الغيب في القرآن، والثاني: تحرير مفهوم مفاتيح الغيب الذي بنيت عليه القضايا المشكلة في الموضوع، والمحور الثالث: تحرير علة ما تم تحريمه أو السماح به من أنماط التنبؤ بالغيب، مع استعراض تاريخي لمواقف الفقهاء من القيافة وبناء الأحكام عليها كنموذج من نماذج التنبؤ، وانتهت الدراسة إلى أن مناط المنع أو الاباحة في التنبؤ يرتبط بعلمية الوسيلة وخلوها من التلبس بمعتقد ديني ينافي التوحيد، وأن ما ينطبق على التنبؤ بالغيب ينطبق على التنبؤ الجيني.‬

Open Access
In: Journal of Islamic Ethics

Abstract

It is hard to imagine human beings without animals: they surround them incessantly. Be it the pets in their own homes, the farm animals in the fields, the birds in the sky, or the insects in the gardens. Human beings cannot be without animals. It may therefore not be surprising that the Qurʾān, as a message addressed to human beings, also refers to animals: dozens of different animals are mentioned in the Qurʾān. Thus, we find the narration of the ant who speaks (Q 27:17–19), the hoopoe who gives advice (Q 27:20–26), and even the raven who taught Qābīl a lesson (Q 5:31). The Qurʾān is full of such narratives that break with traditional images of animals by turning them into supposed aides, giving them voices, and even portraying them as creatures capable of praise, living in communities. God Himself seems to interact with animals in the Qurʾān, even allowing them to become actors in interactions with the Prophets. But how can these narratives be understood? What added value can they offer to the question of the ethically appropriate and just treatment of animals? To answer these questions, this article intends to turn to selected Qurʾānic narratives about encounters between humans and animals by using a hermeneutic-phenomenological approach. For this purpose, this text will deal with the encounters between humans and animals to explore how an ethical coexistence of human beings and animals can be conceived on the basis of being-with (-each other).

Open Access
In: Journal of Islamic Ethics

Abstract

This article draws on an excerpt of ʿAbd al-Qādir al-Jīlānī (d. 561/1166) in his al-Ghunya li-Ṭālibī al-Ḥaqq (“The Sufficient Provision for Seekers of the Path to the Truth [God]”), dealing with ādāb related to killing or sparing inedible animals. It first pleads for a detailed textual analysis, in order to understand the normative frame the author uses. Keeping away from an exclusive juridical perspective, we try to consider Islamic normativity as a whole, using a holistic normative methodology and encompassing ādāb, popular beliefs, and spiritual tenets beyond fiqh rules. This analysis is the key to find out which function do ādāb toward animals have for believers.

Open Access
In: Journal of Islamic Ethics

Abstract

Several studies have been written on the subject of animals in the Ottoman Empire, with a focus on dogs in particular. Most of these studies cover the subject through various sources, including history books, biographies, travelogues, and diaries. Although studying the issue via these sources is important, several works written in the Ottoman period, especially distinct treatises, provide more concrete information on the subject. These treatises have the unique quality of providing insight into many points, especially with relevance to the concepts on which the scholars and thinkers of the period examined the human-animal relationship, and also the arguments they advanced to establish this relationship. One such treatise was written by Mustaqīmzāde (d. 1202/1788) in the 12th/18th century. This treatise deals with many issues, especially the human-dog relationship, the characteristics dogs have, why people should be compassionate towards dogs, and the problems of having a negative attitude towards dogs. In this article, I give a brief biography of Mustaqīmzāde, summarize the changing attitude of Ottomans towards dogs, discuss the content of Mustaqīmzāde’s treatise, and finally translate it into English and present an edition of the text.

Open Access
In: Journal of Islamic Ethics