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Abstract

From the middle of the 20th century, a very specific visual vocabulary was used in depictions of the Roman army in western cinema. While early depictions of Roman warfare were often wild and chaotic affairs, from the 1960s on the Roman army was increasingly, and consistently, presented as operating in a uniform, highly structured, and organized fashion – even, and perhaps especially, in the heat of battle. This model of Roman military behavior, which used massed formations as a key element, was based in part on the then-current understanding of the ancient evidence but was also influenced by the role which Rome and the army played in the films, typically representing either authoritarian regimes or the rigid structures of modern society. Visually stunning and impactful, this vocabulary proved both effective and popular, and shaped the common view of the Roman army and its subsequent depiction. When “sword and sandals” films reappeared in the 21st century, many directors drew heavily and directly from this existing visual vocabulary. The ideas and tropes seem to have worked equally as well in the new context, although it has stretched the connection to antiquity. Modern scholarly ideas about the Roman army have shifted dramatically since the 1960s, with more heterogenous and dynamic models now being the norm. This change, however, has not been picked up by either modern filmmakers or audiences. In cinema, the primary source material for the army has now become the mid-20th century films, reinforcing a very particular view of the Roman army and state.

Open Access
In: Brill's Companion to Ancient Greek and Roman Warfare on Film
In: Greek Mythic Heroines in Brazilian Literature and Performance
In: Japan on the Jesuit Stage
Author:

Abstract

This paper considers the doodles in the “Nightlessons” chapter of Finnegans Wake, such as the geometrical figure on page 293, the childish drawings that close the chapter, and Issy’s “Doodles family” footnote (FW 299 F4). Since Roland McHugh’s Sigla of Finnegans Wake, the symbols Joyce developed to refer to his protean and manifold characters have often been regarded as a key to the novel. However, the resemblance between Joyce’s sigla and the symbols of formal logic has not been noted. For instance, hce’s siglum, as it appears on FW 36.16 (“∃!”), is identical to Russell’s non-empty set, a forerunner of the existential quantifier; alp’s delta (Δ) is a common mathematical symbol; and Issy’s siglum, in two of its aspects (⊢,⊥), represents, respectively, Frege’s assertion sign and Peirce’s notation for nor. Joyce drew on Russell’s Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy (1919) for “Nightlessons”, and in Tales Told of Shem and Shaun (1929), where the “triangle” section of ii.2 was first published, C.K. Ogden compares the language of the Wake to formal logic. These sources, and the way Joyce introduced the sigla into the published text, suggest that both the art and the logic of Joyce’s “Doodles family” are informed by mathematical philosophy.

Open Access
In: James Joyce and the Arts
Author:

Abstract

This paper considers the doodles in the “Nightlessons” chapter of Finnegans Wake, such as the geometrical figure on page 293, the childish drawings that close the chapter, and Issy’s “Doodles family” footnote (FW 299 F4). Since Roland McHugh’s Sigla of Finnegans Wake, the symbols Joyce developed to refer to his protean and manifold characters have often been regarded as a key to the novel. However, the resemblance between Joyce’s sigla and the symbols of formal logic has not been noted. For instance, hce’s siglum, as it appears on FW 36.16 (“∃!”), is identical to Russell’s non-empty set, a forerunner of the existential quantifier; alp’s delta (Δ) is a common mathematical symbol; and Issy’s siglum, in two of its aspects (⊢,⊥), represents, respectively, Frege’s assertion sign and Peirce’s notation for nor. Joyce drew on Russell’s Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy (1919) for “Nightlessons”, and in Tales Told of Shem and Shaun (1929), where the “triangle” section of ii.2 was first published, C.K. Ogden compares the language of the Wake to formal logic. These sources, and the way Joyce introduced the sigla into the published text, suggest that both the art and the logic of Joyce’s “Doodles family” are informed by mathematical philosophy.

Open Access
In: James Joyce and the Arts