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Preamble

This paper follows on from the previous bulletin (), which covered the education remit of the Parliament’s Education and Skills Committee between February and August 2021. The following bulletin covers the education remit of the Education, Children and Young People Committee from September 2021 to January 2022.

Open Access
In: Scottish Educational Review

Abstract

Although there are no attendance or registration fees in the UK for publicly funded school education there are hidden costs in attending compulsory education. This article investigates one of the hidden costs: school uniform. We investigate the affordability of school uniform in Scotland, looking at what is required in school uniform policy (class uniform and Physical Education kit), the costs of uniform and to what extent the national minimum clothing grant makes uniform affordable for households on low incomes. For this research we use a unique national dataset of the school uniform policies of all 357 publicly funded secondary schools in Scotland and responses to Freedom of Information requests sent to all local authorities (n = 30). From analysis of the uniform policies and the requirements and application processes for the national minimum clothing grant we are able to draw together recommendations for the Scottish Government, local authorities and schools. We also found a compelling need for detailed data collection on how much it costs to clothe children for a whole school year.

Open Access
In: Scottish Educational Review

Abstract

This paper examines different curriculum making actors, discourses and practices at different sites and then situate Scotland and Wales within these. I illustrate the interconnected nature of different sites of curriculum making and explain how these exert influences in the two countries while acknowledging their social and cultural differences. Analysing of policy documents suggest that certain supra discourses and trends are evident in both countries following similar curriculum structures. Nevertheless, there are differences in the ways curriculum is constructed and the steps taken for increasing curriculum making capacity.

Open Access
In: Scottish Educational Review
Author:

Abstract

Within the social sciences, the term equity has a helpful and precise meaning – referring to a differentiated response to an individual’s distinct needs or circumstances. However, since the 2000s ‘equity’ has been recontextualised within national and international education policymaking as a generic term. This recontextualisation has led to ‘equity’ being used uncritically to refer to a range of related, and sometimes contradictory, concepts. This article draws on the literature to identify five framings of ‘educational equity’ within recent policy. It suggests that only one of these – which emphasises responsiveness to individual needs or characteristics – has clear conceptual alignment with the core principle of equity. The others either relate more strongly to the principle of equality or emphasise the tracking and measurement of outcomes. This article highlights the need for conceptual clarity to ensure the principle of equity is a helpful one in informing research, policy, and practice.

Open Access
In: Scottish Educational Review
Author:

Abstract

In a contemporary society dominated by visual media, critical visual literacy (cvl) is a significant skill to inculcate, and yet, in some educational systems, its integration in teaching and education has not (yet) achieved enough recognition, especially in a context like Pakistan. As it is assumed that students will develop the necessary competencies by themselves as they operate in a far more visually stimulating world today. This view, however, is contested in literature where it is claimed that students can learn to develop cvl competencies just like they develop their phonemic literacy skills. Thus, the current study investigated how the use of images in a classroom of 12-year-olds in Karachi, Pakistan can help them develop cvl. Using an action research methodology with video-recorded observations, focus-group interviews, teacher’s reflections, and students’ work, data was obtained over 10 weeks. The findings from the study suggested that as students analysed and interpreted images, they enhanced their abilities to consider multiple perspectives, critical thinking, application-based learning, and visualization, eventually, improving their engagement, learning, and development. However, for some students, the process of critical interrogation of images was found to be challenging. Also, a well-prepared teacher with pedagogical content knowledge on cvl was found equally important to involve students in more meaningful learning experiences.

Open Access
In: Scottish Educational Review

Abstract

Under Scotland’s Curriculum for Excellence, the health and wellbeing of school pupils is the ‘Responsibility of All’. Mental health is included in this though the extent to which secondary teachers feel confident to deal with the many and varied issues which their pupils present with is less clear. This pilot study seeks to explore the potential gap between the responsibilities that are assigned to Scottish secondary teachers and the responsibilities that they assume. A questionnaire, interviews and focus group were used to garner the views of a group of secondary teachers. Thematic analysis of the data allowed for an exploration of how the role of the secondary teacher with regard to mental health is perceived by those dealing with pupils on a daily basis. Views varied considerably illustrating that the complexity surrounding these issues should not be underestimated.

Open Access
In: Scottish Educational Review

Abstract

This article explores the enabling factors and actors involved in the transformation pathways towards climate resilience of two German cities: Halle (Saale) and Mannheim. A specifically developed analytical framework served as basis for making the complex developments of the transformation paths of the two cities visible and comparable. The analysis has shown that despite strong similarities in terms of climate change impacts, the cities acted under very different political and economic conditions and thus applied particular strategic and tactical approaches and steering instruments. It can be stated that preparation of climate strategies, creation of a supporting central unit for climate issues and exemplary implementation of selected measures by the administration, as well as awareness-raising and cooperation with the stakeholders and citizens have played a key role in the cities’ transformation. In both cities, the city administration took the role of innovation organiser and orchestrated the pathway towards becoming climate resilient.

Open Access
In: Triple Helix

Abstract

In the original Triple Helix model (Etzkowitz and Leydesdorff 1995), the three “helices” of Universities, Industry and Government and the (3-way) interactions among and between them were proposed as a basis for looking at how entrepreneurship comes into being. Since the original article, other “helix-based” models have been proposed. Some vary the triple and others propose higher numbers of helix – with 4 and 5as the most typical extensions. In the article “Triple, Quadruple, and Higher-Order Helices: Historical phenomena and (neo-)evolutionary models,” Leydesdorff and Lawton Smith (2022) developed an Information-Theory based approach to look more formally at the need for higher-order helices.

In the case of two helices, processes of mutual shaping can generate historical trajectories that could have been otherwise: other options providing possible states, which have not yet historically been realized (Petersen et al., 2016). Adding a third helix makes a substantive change from an information point of view: a Triple Helix model is not just the sum of three sets of 2-way interactions. However, once this number has been reached further additions can be decomposed into sets of triads (Batagelj et al., 2014; Simmel, 1902). This leads to the suggestion that higher-dimensional helix structures potentially add little to discourse.

Four (sets of) authors were asked by the Editors of the Triple Helix to respond to Leydesdorff and Lawton Smith (2022). Many insightful and interesting points were raised including convenience, presentation and the need to allow a more unified theory model. These are discussed in this article’s “responses to just criticism” (Shostakovich, 1937). It continues the debate on triple and higher-order helices by summarising and responding to the points made by those commentators. What may be the status of triple and/or higher-order helices?

Open Access
In: Triple Helix

Abstract

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) gives policy recommendations based on scientific research and agreed climate targets. We outline the concepts and requirements for implementing the sustainability goals. The Triple Helix Twin model is tested as method to analyze the governance of environmental policy formation and implementation. The model is applied to the controversial case of creating the large-scale natural area Northern Park Black Forest in Germany in the period of 2011 to 2014. The protected zone was set up employing criteria of the International Union for Conservation of Nature, IUCN (Category II National Parks). The findings indicate that the creation of protected areas need the participation of stakeholders to address so-called wicked problems that arise between diverse social needs and science based expert knowledge. Findings contribute to the operationalization of the Triple Helix Twins (THT) model for analysing policy impact and transformational governance. We recommend to employ the Triple Helix Twins for future comparative research of the transition from high level concept to local realization.

Open Access
In: Triple Helix

Abstract

Innovation has been and continues to be recognised as central to promoting and supporting sustainable economic development; as such, South Africa has set the goal of becoming a knowledge economy. This is an economy that succeeds in producing knowledge and transforming itself into a technology-based from a resource-based economy that will stimulate growth and development of the country, while creating sustainable employment opportunities. The two key policies designed to drive strategic economic development in South Africa are the Innovation Policy and the Industrial Policy. This article considers the role of technology commercialisation strategy and how it can be utilised as a model for cooperation and collaboration to ensure achievement of the objectives of the innovation and industrial policies and present a homogeneous approach to policy implementation. The data was collected through a field survey of small, medium and micro enterprises (SMME s) which are technological oriented. Additional information was gathered through an in-depth, semi-structured interviews with selected stakeholders within the innovation landscape. The research findings confirm that commercialisation is the most significant and critical step of the innovation value chain, supported by collaboration and linkages of the innovation system players and it requires effective co-operation from both public and private entities. Successful technology commercialisation justifies efforts, funds and time committed to research and development and it propels enterprise development, spurs industrialisation, enhances enterprise technological capability, efficiency and competitiveness, create investment opportunities, and make research more demand driven.

Open Access
In: Triple Helix