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Integrating Research on Education and Citizenship in the Context of Migration
This interdisciplinary volume on The Challenge of Radicalization and Extremism: Integrating Research on Education and Citizenship in the Context of Migration addresses the need for educational researchers to place their work in a broader social and political context by connecting it to the current and highly relevant issue of extremism and radicalization. It is just as important for researchers of extremism and radicalization to strengthen their conceptual links with educational fields, especially with education for democratic citizenship, as for researchers in education to get more familiar with issues of migration. This book meets a current shortage of research that addresses these issues across subjects and disciplines to inform both scientific and professional stakeholders in the educational and social sectors.

The volume is divided into three parts. The first part, Foundations, provides fundamental research on radicalization and the rejection of democratic values. In the second part, Analysis of Preconditions within the Educational Context, key risk and protective factors against radicalization for young people are explored. Finally, the third part, Approaches for Prevention and Intervention, offers concrete suggestions for prevention and intervention methods within formal and informal educational contexts. The contributions show how new avenues for prevention can be explored through integrating citizenship education’s twofold function to assimilate and to empower.
In: The Challenge of Radicalization and Extremism

Abstract

The didactical tool Values and Knowledge Education (VaKE) combines values education in the tradition of Kohlberg with knowledge acquisition through inquiry-based learning on a constructivist basis. The claim is that this method can provide integration competencies and hence contribute to fostering dispositions for courageous non-violent engagement. The prototypical VaKE steps need to be adapted to specific audiences and conditions. Two studies are presented in which VaKE was tested with Muslim immigrants: the first one with a small group of unaccompanied male minors, the second with ninety-five female refugees. In both studies, the participants declared to be highly satisfied with the experience. In the first study, the workshop had to be extended from the planned three half-days to four sessions at the participants’ request, and the participants acquired many competences, culminating in their decision to implement a democratic structure. In the second study, after two half-days of workshop sessions, the participants were asked to take behaviour resolutions and to act accordingly between the second and the third half-days, which most of them achieved successfully. Results show that VaKE had positive effects. It is possible to conclude that VaKE is a promising intervention for promoting successful integration and for preventing terrorist orientations in those who have participated.

Open Access
In: The Challenge of Radicalization and Extremism
Author:

Abstract

Global migration, the quest by diverse groups for equality, and the rise of populist nationalism have complicated the development of citizenship and citizenship education in nations around the world. Many racial, ethnic, cultural, linguistic, and religious groups are denied structural inclusion into their nation-state. Consequently, they do not fully internalize the values and symbols of the nation-state, develop a strong identity with it, or acquire political efficacy. They focus primarily on particularistic group needs and goals rather than the overarching goals of the nation-state. I conceptualize this process as failed citizenship and present a typology that details failed, recognized, participatory, and transformative citizenship. I describe the role of the schools in reducing failed citizenship and helping marginalized groups become efficacious and participatory citizens in multicultural nation-states.

Open Access
In: The Challenge of Radicalization and Extremism
In: The Challenge of Radicalization and Extremism

Abstract

This chapter emphasizes the importance of language for the integration of immigrants. First, we summarize findings on the crucial role of language skills for educational success, occupational opportunities, and social inclusion. As the openness of the host society is also a central factor for integration, we next describe how social categorization can be an important source for the development of prejudice, hostility, and extremism. In this context, we highlight the significant role of language as a social category that has the potential to impact positively the openness of host society members towards immigrants. Finally, we summarize two studies demonstrating the importance of language as an intergroup category. Study 1 found evidence that language skills play an important role in secondary school students’ openness towards refugee peers, and Study 2 provided some initial indication that language skills are more relevant than cultural similarity for the openness of host society members towards international students at higher education institutions. In sum, this chapter establishes the crucial role of host society language skills from different perspectives and demonstrates that language has a great potential for promoting the successful integration of immigrants.

Open Access
In: The Challenge of Radicalization and Extremism
Authors: and

Abstract

The idea of this paper comes from community-based projects under the Erasmus+ programme which brought together immigrant young people and unrelated older adults for ICT courses. In this chapter, we first describe ways in which educational activities using information and communication technologies (ICT) in out-of-school local communities can promote civic attitudes, prevent radicalization and extremism, and have the potential to help assimilate immigrants into the local environment. Second, we present how ICT-based learning influences a common understanding, communication, a willingness to help each other, and the sharing of mutual concerns and passions. We claim that ICT within intergenerational learning can be perceived as a sociocultural construct and that it can facilitate mutual interactions and promote the building of subjectivity, self-determination, and an awareness of social and cultural potential. Activities that support ICT within intergenerational relations can provide opportunities for preventing destructive behaviours, accepting the binding patterns of civic activities, and developing lasting and far-reaching learning experiences. ICT-based intergenerational learning further helps participants build their status as citizens based on trust and cooperation.

Open Access
In: The Challenge of Radicalization and Extremism

Abstract

With the term jihadism, I refer to a religious and political phenomenon based on a radical version of Islam that claims to be the genuine and unique embodiment of Allah’s religion, all the others being fake. It is based on the primacy of jihad, i.e. violence in the name of God, in order to impose on the world its religious norms, which are reinterpreted in the light of radical Islam. Between the emergence of the Islamic State (IS or ISIS) in June 2014 and its end as a state in October 2017, jihadism brought new agents to the world stage, especially in Europe. Its advent multiplied the calls for jihad among Western young people, particularly in Europe. Among them were adolescents and post-adolescents, including young people of migrant origin, middle class converts, people with psychological problems, and women. This article focuses on young people of migrant origin, the middle class, and jihadist women.

Open Access
In: The Challenge of Radicalization and Extremism