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Ancient Medicine in Its Socio-Cultural Context, Volume 1

Papers Read at the Congress Held at Leiden University, 13-15 April 1992

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Edited by H.F.J. Horstmanshoff, Philip J. van der Eijk and P.H. Schrijvers

This collection of papers – some of which written by the world’s leading specialists in the area of ancient medicine – aims at promoting an integrated approach to medical theory and practice in classical antiquity. Questions of health and disease are considered in their relation to the social, intellectual, moral and religious dimensions of the ancient world. The papers focus on the socio-cultural setting of the experience of pain and illness, the different reactions they provoked and the importance that was attached to this experience in literature, religion and philosophy.
The first volume offers articles (from an archaeological, historical and philological point of view) dealing with social, institutional and geographical aspects of medical practice. It also has a special section on medical views on women, children and sexuality, and on female medical activity.
The second volume focuses on the ways in which religious and magical beliefs influenced the experience of, and the attitude towards, illness and medical practice. It also deals with the relations of medicine with philosophy, and the other sciences and with the variety of linguistic and textual forms in which medical knowledge was expressed and communicated.

Contributors to the first volume are Lawrence J. Bliquez, Simon Byl, Armelle Debru, Nancy Demand, Danielle Gourevitch, Ann Ellis Hanson, H.F.J. Horstmanshoff, Ralph Jackson, Eva C. Keuls, Jukka Korpela, Ernst Künzl, Gabriele Marasco, Attilio Mastrocinque, Karin Nijhuis, Vivian Nutton, H.W. Pleket, Heikki Solin, Peter Van Minnen, and Juliane C. Wilmanns.

Ancient Medicine in Its Socio-Cultural Context, Volume 2

Papers Read at the Congress Held at Leiden University, 13-15 April 1992

Series:

Edited by H.F.J. Horstmanshoff, Philip J. van der Eijk and P.H. Schrijvers

This collection of papers – some of which written by the world’s leading specialists in the area of ancient medicine – aims at promoting an integrated approach to medical theory and practice in classical antiquity. Questions of health and disease are considered in their relation to the social, intellectual, moral and religious dimensions of the ancient world. The papers focus on the socio-cultural setting of the experience of pain and illness, the different reactions they provoked and the importance that was attached to this experience in literature, religion and philosophy.
The first volume offers articles (from an archaeological, historical and philological point of view) dealing with social, institutional and geographical aspects of medical practice. It also has a special section on medical views on women, children and sexuality, and on female medical activity.
The second volume focuses on the ways in which religious and magical beliefs influenced the experience of, and the attitude towards, illness and medical practice. It also deals with the relations of medicine with philosophy, and the other sciences and with the variety of linguistic and textual forms in which medical knowledge was expressed and communicated.

Contributors to the second volume are Darrel W. Amundsen, Angelos Chaniotis, Philip J. van der Eijk, Elsa García Novo, Burkhard Gladigow, Richard Gordon, Katerina Ierodiakonou, Alberto Jori, Karl-Heinz Leven, James Longrigg, Harm Pinkster, I. Rodríguez Alfageme, Ineke Sluiter, Heinrich von Staden, Gilles Susong, Teun Tieleman, and M. Vegetti.

Essays in the History of the Physiological Sciences

Proceedings of a network symposium of the European Association for the History of Medicine and Health held at the University Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg, on March 26-27th, 1993

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Edited by Claude Debru

The history of the physiological sciences remains an open field of investigation for scholars from different disciplines. A recent shift of interest towards physiology as the mother of many contemporary biomedical disciplines, has been observed on both scientific and historical levels. Due to its unique richness and variety of facts, interpretations, theoretical models, and moreover unanswered questions, physiology remains a matter of considerable, historical and epistemological interest.
For scholars interested in the experimental as well as the conceptual and theoretical aspects of the physiological sciences in their broader sense, and concerned by their place within the national and international frameworks of biomedical research, forms of cooperation have been proposed within the networks of the European Association for the History of Medicine and health. The present volume is the first publication of this cooperation.
In this volume definite disciplines like neurophysiology and endocrinology, and comparative international aspects are under scrutiny by well established scientists and scholars, physiologists, historians and philosophers. A strong emphasis is placed upon neuroscientific topics like brain localization, functional architecture, physiological mechanisms, behavioral and integrative aspects of the neurosciences, neurotransmission. Local research traditions, national differences and forms of international communication are also examined.

The Health of Prisoners

Historical Essays

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Edited by Richard Creese, Wm. Randolph Bynum and J. Bearn

In eighteenth-century Britain, gaols were places of temporary confinement, where inmates stayed while awaiting punishment. With the rise of the 'penitentiary' from the early nineteenth century, custodial institutions housed prisoners for much longer periods of time. Prisoners were supposed to be reformed as well as punished during their incarceration. From at least the time of John Howard (1726-1790), the health of prisoners has been part of the concern of philanthropists and others concerned with the wider functions of prisons. The Victorians established a Prison Medical Service, and members of the medical profession have long been involved in caring for the mental and physical needs of prisoners. For two centuries, prison overcrowding has been identified as a major cause of mortality and morbidity in prisons. Historical debates thus often have a modern ring to them, which make the essays in this volume particularly timely.

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Edited by Vivian Nutton and Roy Porter

Professional education forms a key element in the transmission of medical learning and skills, in occupational solidarity and in creating and recreating the very image of the practitioner. Yet the history of British medical education has hitherto been surprisingly neglected. Building upon papers contributed to two conferences on the history of medical education in the early 1990s, this volume presents new research and original synthesis on key aspects of medical instruction, theoretical and practical, from early medieval times into the present century. Academic and practical aspects are equally examined, and balanced attention is given to different sites of instruction, be it the university or the hospital. The crucial role of education in medical qualifications and professional licensing is also examined as is the part it has played in the regulation of the entry of women to the profession.

Contributors are Juanita Burnby, W.F. Bynum, Laurence M. Geary, Faye Getz, Johanna Geyer-Kordesch, S.W.F. Holloway, Stephen Jacyna, Peter Murray Jones, Helen King, Susan C. Lawrence, Irvine Loudon, Margaret Pelling, Godelieve Van Heteren, and John Harley Warner.

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Edited by Roy Porter

The interpretation of eighteenth-century medicine has been much contested. Some have view it as a wilderness of rationalism and arid theories between the Scientific Revolution and the astonishing changes of the nineteenth-century. Other scholars have emphasized the close and fruitful links between medicine and the Enlightenment, suggesting that medical advance was the very embodiment of the philosphes’ ideal of a practical science that would improve mankind’s lot and foster human happiness.
In a series of essays covering Great Britain, France, Germany and other parts of Europe, noted historians debate these issues through detailed examinations of major aspects of eighteenth-century medicine and medical controversy, including such topics as the introduction of smallpox inoculation, the transformation of medical education, and the treatment of the insane. The essays as a whole suggest a positive reading of the transformations in eighteenth-century medicine, while stressing local diversity and uneven development.

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Edited by Dorothy Porter

Since George Rosen’s comprehensive History of Public Health, first published in 1956, there has been no internationally comparative survey of the subject. Over the past three decades or so, however, research in this field has expanded rapidly, especially with regard to the history of disease and social order and public health politics and the state. Most of these studies have been highly scholarly and specialised and often dealing with only one aspect of public health in any one national context. The essays here examine the road history of public health in different national contexts in order to provide a work of comparative reference that could be used as a teaching aid.
The book focuses on whether the construction of a public health system is an inherent characteristic of the managerial function of modern political systems. Thus, each essay traces the steps leading to the growth of health government in various nations, examining the specific conflicts and contradictions which each incurred. As a result the volume highlights the need for further comparative analysis of public health systems as a highly fruitful topic for future study.

Doctors and Ethics

The Historical Setting of Professional Ethics

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Edited by Andrew Wear, Johanna Geyer-Kordesch and Roger French

Medical ethics has been a constant adjunct of Western medicine from its origins in Greek times. Although the Hippocratic Oath has been intensely studied, until recently there has been very little historical work on medical ethics between the Oath and Thomas Percival's Medical Ethics of 1803, which is commonly thought of as the first treatise on modern medical ethics. This volume brings together original research which throws new light on how standards of behaviour for medical practitioners were articulated in the different religious, political and social as well as medical contexts from the classical period until the nineteenth century. Its ten essays will place the early history of medical ethics into the framework of the new social and intellectual history of medicine that has been developed in the last ten years.

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Edited by W.F. Bynum and V. Nutton

Therapeutics has been central to the medical enterprise in all times and all places, but a subject that is all too often neglected by historians. The essays in this volume follow a range in chronology from antiquity to the 1980s and in geography from the Mediterranean Basin to the New World. They touch on such matters as diet and drugs, magic and surgery, orthodox and unorthodox approaches. What they share is an attempt to get beyond the easy dismissal of almost all therapeutics before the twentieth century as meaningless and harmful and to examine concrete dimensions of the therapeutic encounter in its social, professional, religious and scientific reverberations.

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Edited by H. Beukers and J. Moll

As periodical of the International Academy of the History of Medicine, this Clio Medica volume contains 17 papers.