The Commitment-Reflectivity Circumplex (CRC) model of religious orientation is introduced and the results from a series of model testing experiments are reviewed. The CRC model was developed through a series of studies in the United States and Romania and was created in an effort to reduce the theoretical and empirical difficulties associated with the traditional Allportian religious orientation models and measures. Toward this end, the difficulties associated with the Allportian religious orientation models are reviewed, along with how the CRC model attempts to address them. Next, the CRC model is introduced and a list of its predictions are given and compared to those of the Allportian models. The results of 10 model testing studies using multidimensional scaling are then reviewed. In these studies, the CRC model, which posits that all religious orientation can be located along dimensions of commitment (importance) and reflectivity (complexity), is found to be more accurate than the Allportian models in both the U.S. and Romania. Based on these studies, the meaning and interpretation of the Allportian measures are reviewed and new interpretations are suggested. Lastly, the relationships between religious orientation, mental health, personality, ideology, and prejudice are explored. In every area, the CRC model, and the measures based on it, show superior predictive abilities to traditional approaches in both the United States and Romania.
The Commitment-Reflectivity Circumplex
Stephen W. Krauss and Ralph W. Hood Jr.
Little discussed by psychoanalysts and almost unknown outside the profession, a small but distinguished group of psychoanalysts were or are mystics: Otto Rank, Erich Fromm, Marion Milner, D. W. Winnicott, Heinz Kohut, Hans W. Loewald, Wilfred R. Bion, James S. Grotstein, Neville Symington, and Michael Eigen. All favoured an extrovertive mysticism that perceives unity throughout physical reality. Several saw creativity as an application of mystical consciousness to the physical material of artwork, artefact, or, more generally, culture.
Edited by Jacob A. Belzen and Antoon Geels
This volume positions itself on the cutting edge of two fields in psychology that enjoy rapidly increasing attention: both the study of human lives and some core domains of such lives as religion and spirituality are high on the agenda of current research and teaching. Biographies and autobiographies are being approached in new ways and have become central to the study of human lives as an object of research and a preferred method for obtaining unique data about subjective human experiences. Ever since the beginning of the psychology of religion, autobiographies have also been pointed out as an important source of information about psychic processes involved in religiosity. In this volume, a number of leading theoreticians and researchers from Europe and the USA try to bring them back to this field by drawing on new insights and latest developments in psychological theory.
A Psychoanalyst Remembers
Gerald J. Gargiulo
This memoir is a story of loss and gain, of alienation and reconciliation, and of how such experiences go into the making of a psychoanalyst. In sharing his own very troubled family history, his decade as a Carmelite monk, his marriage and career as a psychoanalyst, Gargiulo shows how the diverse pieces of one’s life can fit together into something that is meaningful and real. This is one person’s life - but it relates to us all. “We are bound together, each of us,” the author writes, “in our living, our troubles and our joys. As we hear another's story, we are, simultaneously, writing our own autobiography.”