The beginnings of Russian law are documented by the Russo-Byzantine treaties of the 10th century and the oldest Russian law, the Russkaia Pravda. The tempestuous developments of the following centuries (the incessant wars among the princes, the Mongol invasion, the rise of the Novgorod republic) all left their marks on the legal system until the princes of Muscovy succeeded in reuniting the country. This resulted in the creation of major legislative monuments, such as the Codes of Ivan the Great of 1497 and of Ivan the Terrible of 1550. After the Time of Troubles the Council Code of the second Romanov Tsar, Aleksei, of 1649 became the starting point for the comprehensive Russian codification of the 19th century.
This book examines the economic transformation of Turkey, a nation that has risen from bare subsistence in the early 1920s to a thriving market economy as it approaches its EU destination. It reviews the liberal period of the 1920s, highlights Turkey’s inward-looking economic and policy environments that prevailed for more than four decades, and provides an in-depth look at the stabilization and restructuring efforts since the 1980s, focusing on the legislative and political reforms implemented to comply with the terms of entry into the EU. This is a timely title that will be of great interest to policy makers, academics, and the general public, and is a valuable reference for students and scholars of international economics, macroeconomics, and public policy.