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Arabic Type-Making in the Machine Age

The Influence of Technology on the Form of Arabic Type, 1908–1993

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Titus Nemeth

Arabic is the third most widely used script in the world, and gave rise to one of the richest manuscript cultures of mankind. Its representation in type has engaged printers, engineers, businesses and designers since the 16th century, and today most digital devices render Arabic type. Yet the evolution of the printed form of Arabic, and its development from metal to pixels, has not been charted before. Arabic Type-Making in the Machine Age provides the first comprehensive account of this history using previously undocumented archival sources. In this richly illustrated volume, Titus Nemeth narrates the evolution of Arabic type under the influence of changing technologies from the perspective of a practitioner, combining historical research with applied design considerations.

Eros and Revolution

The Critical Philosophy of Herbert Marcuse

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Javier Sethness Castro

In Eros and Revolution, Javier Sethness Castro presents a comprehensive intellectual and political biography of the world-renowned critical theorist Herbert Marcuse (1898-1979). Investigating the origins and development of Marcuse's dialectical approach vis-à-vis Hegel, Marx, Fourier, Heidegger, and Freud as well as the central figures of the Frankfurt School—Horkheimer, Adorno, Neumann, Fromm, and Benjamin—Sethness Castro chronicles the radical philosopher's lifelong activism in favor of anti-capitalism, anti-fascism, and anti-authoritarianism together with Marcuse's defiant revindication of global libertarian-socialist revolution as the precondition for the realization of reason, freedom, and human happiness. Beyond examining Marcuse's revolutionary life and contributions, moreover, the author contemplates the philosopher's relevance to contemporary struggle, especially with regard to ecology, feminism, anarchism, and the general cause of worldwide social transformation.

Antoni van Leeuwenhoek

Master of the Minuscule

Lesley Robertson, Jantien Backer, Claud Biemans, Joop van Doorn, Klaas Krab, Willem Reijnders, Henk Smit and Peter Willemsen

In Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, Master of the Minuscule, the Father of Microbiology is presented in the context of his time, relationships and the Dutch Golden Age. Although he lacked an academic education, he dedicated his life to investigating the microscopic world using handmade, single-lensed microscopes and magnifiers. An expert observer, he planned experiments and designed equipment to test his theories. His pioneering discoveries included blood cells, protozoa, bacteria and spermatozoa, and resulted in an international reputation among the scientific and upper classes of 17th and 18th century Europe, aided by his Fellowship of the Royal Society of London.

This lavishly illustrated biography sets his legacy of scientific achievements against the ideas and reactions of his fellow scientists and other contemporaries.

Dutch Deltas

Emergence, Functions and Structure of the Low Countries’ Maritime Transport System, ca. 1300-1850

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Werner Scheltjens

In Dutch Deltas, Werner Scheltjens examines the emergence, functions and structure of the Low Countries’ maritime transport system between ca. 1300 and 1850. Scheltjens introduces the delta as a suitable geographical unit of analysis for understanding the regional economic origins of communities of maritime transporters. The author proves that changes in maritime trade networks and in the structure of regional economies entailed a process of specialisation, which led to the emergence of ‘professional’ maritime transport communities and the development of an integrated maritime transport market with Amsterdam and Rotterdam as its main centres.

Dutch Deltas offers the first comprehensive study of the economic geography of the Low Countries’ maritime transport sector and its long-term development between 1300 and 1850.

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Edited by Karl A. E.. Enenkel and Paul J. Smith

This volume tries to map out the intriguing amalgam of the different, partly conflicting approaches that shaped early modern zoology. Early modern reading of the “Book of Nature” comprised, among others, the description of species in the literary tradition of antiquity, as well as empirical observations, vivisection, and modern eyewitness accounts; the “translation” of zoological species into visual art for devotion, prayer, and religious education, but also scientific and scholarly curiosity; theoretical, philosophical, and theological thinking regarding God’s creation, the Flood, and the generation of animals; new attempts with respect to nomenclature and taxonomy; the discovery of unknown species in the New World; impressive Wunderkammer collections, and the keeping of exotic animals in princely menageries. The volume demonstrates that theology and philology played a pivotal role in the complex formation of this new science.

Contributors include: Brian Ogilvie, Bernd Roling, Erik Jorink, Paul Smith, Sabine Kalff, Tamás Demeter, Amanda Herrin, Marrigje Rikken, Alexander Loose, Sophia Hendrikx, and Karl Enenkel.

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Edited by Raji C. Steineck and Claudia Clausius

Origins and Futures: Time Inflected and Reflected provokes an interdisciplinary dialogue about culture, politics, and science’s strategies to divert the relentless trajectory of time. Literature, socio-political policy, physics, among other subjects, demonstrate the human refusal to enlist in temporal determinism. Articles ranging from how detective fiction and international terrorism manipulate the narration of events, to the unlocking of political trauma through forgiveness, to the genetic archaeology of the Human Genome project and the lacunar amnesia of nuclear energy corporations, all argue that wherever human minds meet they wrestle to undo the irrevocable, the irreversible, the fixed. Although such efforts look to the future, they rarely look straight ahead. Whatever their enterprise, writers, philosophers, and scientists believe that origins are alacritous keys to future hopes and aspirations.

Contributors include: Marcus Bullock, Michael Crawford, Patricia Engle, Carol Fischer, J. T. Fraser, Sabine Gross, Paul Harris, Rosemary Huisman, Karmen MacKendrick, Steven Ostovich, Walter Schweidler, Friedel Weinert, and Masae Yuasa.

Climate and Political Climate

Environmental Disasters in the Medieval Levant

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Sarah Kate Raphael

The twelfth and thirteenth centuries in the Levant saw a substantial rise in the number of droughts. This coincided with some of the most violent tectonic activity the region had witnessed. Nature, however, could conjure other powerful disasters: swarms of locusts, armies of mice, scorching winds and thick dust storms.
The data for this research is drawn from contemporary Arabic and Latin sources. The main aim is to try and determine the long and short-term repercussions of environmental disasters on the political, military and social affairs in the Levant during the Crusader, Ayyubid and Mamluk periods. Did environmental disasters spur or hinder conflict?
This research examines the most destructive disasters and gradual climate changes within a broader historical context.

Travel Sketches from Liberia

Johann Büttikofer's 19th Century Rainforest Explorations in West Africa

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Edited by Henk Dop and Phillip Robinson

In the 1880s a Swiss-born biologist, Johann Büttikofer, while working for the Royal Museum of Natural History in Leiden, The Netherlands, carried out two extended expeditions to Liberia, West Africa. In 1890 he published the results of his work in German in two-volumes, entitled Reisebilder aus Liberia (Travel Sketches from Liberia).
Büttikofer worked extensively in the forested regions of coastal Liberia and made the acquaintance of many prominent Liberians and other personalities of that era. His zoological work there is actually exceeded by his detailed descriptions of the state of Liberia some 50 years following its colonization by freed American slaves and their descendents. It constitutes the first comprehensive monograph on the Republic of Liberia.