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This volume offers original research on religious freedom from around the globe. Individual chapters address the issues related to defining and understanding the concept of religious freedom and incorporate sociological thinking into interdisciplinary analysis of this topic. By interpreting legal cases, analyzing cross-national data, interviewing policy-makers, and reviewing policy-papers concerning religious freedom, the authors highlight the necessity of sociology engaging with other disciplines in this type of research. By applying theories of religious pluralism, secularity, secularization, judicialization of religion, “lived religion”, total institutions, and others, this volume contributes theoretical perspectives, sociological concepts and empirical analyses that highlight the development of religious freedom as an area of study in the social sciences.
Versuch über den Zusammenhang von Recht und Moral
Der in den modernen Gesellschaften ausgeprägte moralische Pluralismus macht es zunehmend schwieriger, das geltende Recht gegenüber allen Rechtsunterworfenen als legitim zu erweisen.
Das Buch untersucht, mit welchen Argumentationsformen die Anhänger unterschiedlicher Moralen einander von der Akzeptabilität eines bestimmten rechtlichen Rahmens überzeugen können. Dazu gehört die Verständigung auf eine Verfassung, die einen elementaren Schutz garantiert und Prozeduren für die Lösung von normativen Konflikten festlegt. Zudem wird deutlich, dass ein modernes Recht nur noch legitim sein kann, wenn es die Gefahr einer Tyrannei der Mehrheit mindert, indem es Möglichkeiten zur Regionalisierung des Rechts sowie zur Sezession bietet.
Mit der abschließenden Analyse der Toleranz als einer dem Legitimitätskonzept angepassten Tugend wird eine zentrale Anforderung an die Bürger moderner Staaten präzisiert.
Naturrecht, Moralphilosophie und Eigentumstheorie in Kants "Naturrecht Feyerabend"
In recent decades, Kant's philosophy of law has increasingly moved into the focus of moral-philosophical discussions. In this context, the "Naturrecht Feyerabend" is of particular importance. On the one hand, it is the only surviving transcription of the lectures on natural law that Kant gave twelve times between 1767 and 1788; on the other hand, it is based on his lectures in the summer semester of 1784 and thus provides important evidence of Kant's reflections during an important phase in the development of his moral philosophy. Despite this special significance, the text has received little attention in previous research. Dieter Hüning, Stefan Klingner and Gianluca Sadun Bordoni present here a volume that emphasizes this special significance. The ten contributions in the volume ask about the relationship of "Naturrecht Feyerabend" to the tradition of natural law as well as its relationship to critical moral philosophy and the late "Doctrine of Right".

Contributors are: Manfred Baum, Franz Hespe, Philipp-Alexander Hirsch, Dieter Hüning, Stefan Klingner, Markus Kohl, Gabriel Rivero, Gianluca Sadun Bordoni, Michael Städtler, and Gideon Stiening.

Kants Rechtsphilosophie ist in den letzten Jahrzehnten wieder zunehmend in das Zentrum moralphilosophischer Diskussionen gerückt. Dabei kommt dem sogenannten „Naturrecht Feyerabend“ eine besondere Bedeutung zu. Denn einerseits stellt diese Nachschrift die einzige erhaltene Transkription der Vorlesungen über Naturrecht dar, die Kant zwischen 1767 und 1788 immerhin zwölfmal hielt; zudem geht sie andererseits auf seine Vorlesungen aus dem Sommersemester 1784 zurück und ist damit ein wichtiges Zeugnis der Überlegungen Kants aus einer besonders wichtigen Phase in der Entwicklung seiner Moralphilosophie. Trotz dieser besonderen Bedeutung wurde dem Text in der bisherigen Forschung wenig Aufmerksamkeit geschenkt. Dieter Hüning, Stefan Klingner und Gianluca Sadun Bordoni legen hier einen Band vor, der die besondere Bedeutung des „Naturrechts Feyerabend“ herausstellt. Die zehn Beiträge des Bandes fragen dabei nach dem Verhältnis des „Naturrechts Feyerabend“ zur Naturrechtstradition sowie nach dessen Verhältnis zur kritischen Moralphilosophie und zur späten „Rechtslehre“.
Author: Mikhail Antonov
This volume examines the elements of formalism and decisionism in Russian legal thinking and, also, the impact of conservatism on the interplay of these elements. The actual conservative narratives, about the distinctiveness of Russian law, reveal certain features of the intellectual culture that is transmitted in legal education, scholarship and practice. These narratives are based on the idea of sovereignty understood as legal omnipotence of the state. References to sovereignty justify the requirement of legality in the sense of fidelity to the letter of the law. They also often serve as a rationale for crafting exceptions to constitutional non-discrimination principles as they are applied to political, religious, sexual and other minorities.
Smart Technologies and Fundamental Rights covers a broad range of vital topics that highlight the ethical, socio-political, and legal challenges as well as technical issues of Artificial Intelligence with respect to fundamental rights. Either humanity will greatly profit from the use of AI in almost all domains in human life, which may eventually lead to a much better and more humane society, or it could be the case that people may misuse AI for idiosyncratic purposes and intelligent machines may turn against human beings. Therefore, we should be extremely cautious with respect to the technological development of AI because we might not be able to control the machines once they reached a certain level of sophistication.
Towards the Reconstruction of a Materialist Theory of Law
Author: Sonja Buckel
On the basis of a reconstruction of legal theory in the tradition of Marx – a current that has been more or less silenced since the end of the 1970s – Subjectivation and Cohesion develops a critical counter-pole to the theories of law that predominate in social theory today.

To this end, the works of Franz Neumann, Otto Kirchheimer, Evgeny Pashukanis, Oskar Negt, Isaac D. Balbus, the so-called 'State-derivation School', Antonio Gramsci, Nicos Poulantzas and Michel Foucault are first analysed for their strengths and weaknesses, and then combined to form a new construction: a materialist legal theory that is up to date and can avoid the shortcomings of existing theories – above all their disregard for gender relations and the reductive consequences of functionalist, economic or politicist approaches to law. This book was originally published in German as Subjektivierung und Kohäsion. Zur Rekonstruktion einer materialistischen Theorie des Rechts, by Velbrück Wissenschaft, 2007, ISBN 978-3-938808-29-0.
In Sociocybernetics and Political Theory in a Complex World, Roberto Mancilla posits that because current political and constitutional theory was crafted since the XVII century, in the age of globalisation, Google and Big Data, other arrangements are needed. He proposes a recasting of the ideas of the State, Separation of Powers, The Public/Private Distinction and Constitutionalism by means of cybernetics, a body of knowledge that gave way to the technology that we have today. This will be done by means of a general introduction to sociocybernetics and complexity and then through the critical dismantling of said concepts of political theory and then proposals imbued with newer ideas.
Hegel’s Concept of Ethical Life Today
Volume Editors: Jiří Chotaš and Tereza Matějčková
An Ethical Modernity? investigates the relation between Hegel’s doctrine of ethical life ( Sittlichkeit) and modernity as a historical category and a philosophical concept. In this collection of essays, the authors analyze Hegel’s theory of ethical life from various perspectives: social ontology, social practices and beliefs, theory of judgment, relations between Hegel’s theory of ethical life and Kant’s ethics, Hegel’s philosophy of family, relation of the modern market to ‘European values’, the ethos of state and of international relations, and Hegel’s metaphilosophical commitment to philosophy. This volume is of importance to anyone interested in how Hegel’s practical philosophy relates to us and our times.
Author: Hylkje de Jong
In Ἐντολή (mandatum) in den Basiliken Hylkje de Jong deals with the way the Byzantine jurists of the early period (6th and early 7th century) and later period (11th and 12th century) dealt with the law of mandate as they found this in respectively Justinian’s compilation and in the 9th century Basilica. Commonly characterised as consistent Byzantine dogmatics, the remarks of these Byzantine jurists appear to be in reality individual approaches, coloured by each jurist’s own methodology of interpreting.
Based upon the Basilica texts, the law of mandate is set out thematically: the mandate’s object, the liability of parties, actions, remunerations. De Jong proves convincingly that the Byzantine remarks provide a better understanding of Justinian Roman law.

In der Studie Ἐντολή (mandatum) in den Basiliken beschäftigt sich Hylkje de Jong mit der Art und Weise, wie sich die byzantinischen Juristen des 6. und frühen 7. aber auch des 11. und 12. Jahrhunderts mit dem Auftragsrechts befassten, das sie in Justinians Kompilation bzw. in den Basiliken des 9. Jahrhunderts fanden. Die Äußerungen dieser byzantinischen Juristen werden in der Regel als einheitliche byzantinische Rechtslehre aufgefasst, erweisen sich aber in Wirklichkeit als individuelle Ansätze, die von der Methodik des jeweiligen Juristen geprägt und gefärbt sind.
Basierend auf den Basilikentexten wird das Auftragsrecht thematisch dargestellt: Gegenstand des Mandats, Haftung der Parteien, Klagen, Vergütungen etc. Überzeugend weist De Jong nach, dass die byzantinischen Darlegungen ein besseres Verständnis des römischen Rechts von Justinian vermitteln.
Contemporary Discussions in Shī ͑ī Legal Theory
In Visions of Sharīʿa Bhojani, De Rooij and Bohlander present the first broad examination of ways in which legal theory ( uṣūl al-fiqh) within Twelver Shīʿī thought continues to be a forum for vibrant debates regarding the assumptions, epistemology and hermeneutics of Sharīʿa in contemporary Shīʿī thought. Bringing together authoritative voices and emerging scholars, from both ‘traditional’ seminaries and ‘Western’ academies, the distinct critical insider and emic accounts provided develop a novel avenue in Islamic legal studies. Contextualised through reference to the history of Shīʿī legal theory as well as contemporary juristic practice and socio-political considerations, the volume demonstrates how one of the most intellectually vibrant and developed discourses of Islamic thought continues to be a key forum for exploring visions of Sharīʿa.