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At the foundation of international law lies the notion of ius gentium or right of peoples, an idea that fully came into its own with the discovery of America and the effort to resolve the moral issues posed by the Spanish presence. Once Vitoria broadened the Augustinian concept of an international community by proposing the use of reason as the only criterion for membership in that community, it remained to formulate the laws needed to impose order on it. But before accomplishing that task, two questions must be accounted for: what is the nature of the ius gentium, and what is its relation to ius naturale? How theologians, philosophers, jurists sought the answers between 1500 and 1700 is the subject of this essay.
Author: Mingjun Lu
In The Metaphysics of Chinese Moral Principles, author Mingjun Lu seeks to construct and establish the metaphysics of Chinese morals as a formal and independent branch of learning by abstracting and systemizing the universal principles presupposed by the primal virtues and key imperatives in Daoist and Confucian ethics. Lu proposes that the metaphysical foundation of Chinese moral principles, as reinstated in this book, brings to light not only the universality of its core values and ideals but also a pivotal though hitherto neglected key to the enduring vibrancy of a civilization that has lasted several millennia.