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The Development of the Biblical Hebrew vowels

Including a Concise Historical Morphology

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Benjamin Suchard

The development of the Biblical Hebrew Vowels investigates the sound changes affecting the Proto-Northwest-Semitic vocalic phonemes and their reflexes in Tiberian Biblical Hebrew. Contrary to many previous approaches, Benjamin Suchard shows that these developments can all be described as phonetically regular sound laws. This confirms that despite its unique transmission history, Hebrew behaves like other languages in this regard. Many Hebrew sound changes have traditionally been explained as reflecting non-phonetic conditioning. These include the Canaanite Shift of *ā to *ō, tonic and pre-tonic lengthening, diphthong contraction, Philippi’s Law, the Law of Attenuation, and the apocope of short, unstressed vowels. By reconsidering reconstructions and re-evaluating phonetic conditions, this work shows how the Biblical Hebrew forms regularly derive from their Proto-Northwest-Semitic precursors.
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Ancient Manuscripts in Digital Culture

Visualisation, Data Mining, Communication

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Edited by David Hamidović, Claire Clivaz and Sarah Bowen Savant

Ancient Manuscripts in Digital Culture presents an overview of the digital turn in Ancient Jewish and Christian manuscripts visualisation, data mining and communication. Edited by David Hamidović, Claire Clivaz and Sarah Bowen Savant, it gathers together the contributions of seventeen scholars involved in Biblical, Early Jewish and Christian studies. The volume attests to the spreading of digital humanities in these fields and presents fundamental analysis of the rise of visual culture as well as specific test-cases concerning ancient manuscripts. Sophisticated visualisation tools, stylometric analysis, teaching and visual data, epigraphy and visualisation belong notably to the varied overview presented in the volume.
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Abraham Ibn Ezra Latinus on Nativities

A Parallel Latin-English Critical Edition of Liber Nativitatum and Liber Abraham Iudei de Nativitatibus. Abraham Ibn Ezra’s Astrological Writings, Volume 6

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Edited by Shlomo Sela

Abraham Ibn Ezra was “reborn” in the Latin West in the last decades of the thirteenth century thanks to a plethora of authored and anonymous Latin translations of his astrological writings. The present volume offers the first critical edition, accompanied by an English translation, a commentary, and an introductory study, of Liber nativitatum (Book of Nativities) and Liber Abraham Iudei de nativitatibus (Book on Nativities by Abraham the Jew), two astrological treatises in Latin that were written by Abraham Ibn Ezra or attributed to him, and whose Hebrew source-text or archetype has not survived. The first is undoubtedly an anonymous Latin translation of the second version of Ibn Ezra’s Sefer ha-moladot (Book of Nativities), whose Hebrew source text is otherwise lost. The second is the most mysterious specimen among the Latin works attributed to Ibn Ezra that have no extant Hebrew counterpart. The present volume shows not only that the Liber Abraham Iudei de nativitatibus underwent a significant metamorphosis over time and was transmitted in four significantly different versions, but also that its date of composition is not that previously accepted by modern scholarship.
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Bernard Vargaftig

Esthétique du renversement

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Régis Lefort

Dans cette monographie, Régis Lefort met en evidence le caractère pictural du poème de Bernard Vargaftig (1934-2012), et la composition musicale de l’œuvre. Il envisage le phénomène de renversement, que ne cesse de convoquer le poète, comme une esthétique poétique, comme l’identité même du poème. Commençant par le dernier vers et remontant jusqu’au premier, le poète creuse la langue du poème pour en identifier la source. Le renversement est aussi une façon de détruire, d’entrer dans l’avalanche, pour rebâtir, aller vers l’aube des mots. Il s’inscrit dans l’omnipresence de la culture hébraïque, selon laquelle la quête du réel ne dévoilerait aucune vérité, inaccessible à la raison humaine, mais produirait un bouleversement de la connaissance, de l’ordre de la connaissance ontologique.

Régis Lefort's study of Bernard Vargaftig (1934-2012) highlights the pictorial character of his poems and the musical composition of his work. Lefort locates in the phenomenon of reversal, so frequently enacted by Vargaftig, a poetic aesthetic and the very identity of the poem. Beginning with the last line and working back to the first, the poet burrows deep into the language of the poem to identify its source. Reversal is also a means of destruction, of entering into an avalanche, in order to rebuild the poem and go towards the dawn of words. It marks in the work the omnipresence of Hebrew culture, according to which the search for the real can reveal no truth, since all truth is inaccessible to human reason, but rather entails an upheaval of knowledge that is in itself the very condition of ontological knowledge.
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Targum Song of Songs and Late Jewish Literary Aramaic

Language, Lexicon, Text, and Translation

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Andrew W. Litke

In Targum Song of Songs and Late Jewish Literary Aramaic, Andrew W. Litke offers the first language analysis of Targum Song of Songs. The Targum utilizes grammatical and lexical features from different Aramaic dialects, as is the case with other Late Jewish Literary Aramaic (LJLA) texts. The study is laid out as a descriptive grammar and glossary, and in the analysis, each grammatical feature and lexical item is compared with the pre-modern Aramaic dialects and other exemplars of LJLA. By clearly laying out the linguistic character of this Targum in this manner, Litke is able to provide added clarity to our understanding of LJLA more broadly. Litke also provides a new transcription and translation of the Paris Héb. 110 manuscript.
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Arab-Jewish Literature

The Birth and Demise of the Arabic Short Story

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Reuven Snir

In Arab-Jewish Literature: The Birth and Demise of the Arabic Short Story, Reuven Snir offers an account of the emergence of the art of the Arabic short story among the Arabized Jews during the 1920s, especially in Iraq and Egypt, its development in the next two decades, until the emigration to Israel after 1948, and the efforts to continue the literary writing in Israeli society, the shift to Hebrew, and its current demise. The stories discussed in the book reflect the various stages of the development of Arab-Jewish identity during the twentieth century and are studied in the relevant updated theoretical and literary contexts. An anthology of sixteen translated stories is also included as an appendix to the book.
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Nathaniel Berman

Nathaniel Berman’s Divine and Demonic in the Poetic Mythology of the Zohar: The “Other Side” of Kabbalah offers a new approach to the central work of Jewish mysticism, the Sefer Ha-Zohar (“Book of Radiance”). Berman explicates the literary techniques through which the Zohar constructs a mythology of intricately related divine and demonic personae. Drawing on classical and modern rhetorical paradigms, as well as psychoanalytical theories of the formation of subjectivity, Berman reinterprets the meaning of the Zohar’s divine and demonic personae, exploring their shared origins and their ongoing antagonisms and intimacies. Finally, he shows how the Zoharic portrayal of the demonic, the “Other Side,” contributes to reflecting on alterity of all kinds.
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Printing the Talmud

Complete Editions, Tractates, and Other Works and the Associated Presses from the Mid-17th Century through the 18th Century

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Marvin J. Heller

Printing the Talmud: Complete Editions, Tractates and Other Works, and the Associated Presses from the Mid-17th Century through the 18th Century is a profusely illustrated major work describing the complete editions of the Talmud printed from about 1650 to slightly after 1800. Apart from the intrinsic value of those editions, their publication was often contentious due to disputes, often bitter, between rival publishers, embroiling rabbis and communities throughout Europe. The cities and editions encompassed include Amsterdam, Frankfort am Main, Frankfurt on the Oder, Prague, and Sulzbach. This edition of Printing the Talmud addresses these editions as an opening to discuss the history of the subject presses, their other titles and their general context in Jewish history.
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Edited by Florian Wilk

Scriptural Interpretation at the Interface between Education and Religion examines prominent texts from Jewish, Christian, and Islamic communities with a view to determining to what extent education ( Bildung) represents the precondition, the central feature and/or the aim of the interpretation of 'Holy Scripture' in antiquity. In particular, consideration is given to the exegetical techniques, the hermeneutical convictions and the contexts of intercultural exchange which determine the process of interpretation. The volume contains a methodological reflection as well as investigations of scriptural interpretation in Jewish texts from the 2nd and 1st centuries B.C.E., in New Testament writings, and in witnesses from late ancient Christianity and in the Qur’an. Finally, it contains a critical appraisal of the scholarly oeuvre of Hans Conzelmann. This work thus fosters scholarly understanding of the function of scriptural interpretation at the interface between education and religion.
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Edited by Sjef Houppermans, Manet van Montfrans, Annelies Schulte Nordholt, Sabine van Wesemael and Nell de Hullu-van Doeselaar

Ce volume comporte un dossier sur la thématique de l’argent dans A la recherche du temps perdu. Chez Proust, l’argent est beaucoup plus que l’argent, il devient véhicule de passion, de pulsion, d’excès. Loin de se limiter à la dimension sociologique du roman, il joue un rôle à d’autres niveaux : esthétique, imaginaire mais surtout affectif, dans le motif récurrent du don. Dans une série de huit études, le dossier éclaire les diverses facettes de cet imaginaire de l’argent, qui s’infiltre dans les relations humaines ainsi que dans l’art.
Dans la section mélanges, on trouvera des études sur le Paris proustien, sur les objets et les arts décoratifs dans la Recherche et sur l’amitié de Proust avec Robert de Flers.

The greater part of this issue is devoted to the topic of money in the Recherche. In Proust’s work, money is so much more, it is the vehicle of passions, impulses and excess. Apart from its sociological references, money plays a role at other levels of the novel: the aesthetic, the imaginary and above all the affective dimension, with the recurrent motive of gift. With a series of eight studies, the present issue throws a light on this imaginary of money, which infuses human relations and art.
The Miscellanea section includes studies about Proust’s Paris, about art objects and decorative arts in the Recherche and on Proust’s friendship with Robert de Flers.