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Cultural Heritage in the European Union

A Critical Inquiry into Law and Policy

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Edited by Andrzej Jakubowski, Kristin Hausler and Francesca Fiorentini

Cultural Heritage in the European Union provides a critical analysis of the laws and policies which address cultural heritage throughout Europe, considering them in light of the current challenges faced by the Union. The volume examines the matrix of organisational and regulatory frameworks concerned with cultural heritage both in the Union and its Members States, as well as their interaction, cross-fertilisation, and possible overlaps. It brings together experts in their respective fields, including not only legal, but also cultural economists, heritage professionals, government representatives, and historians. The diverse backgrounds of the authors offer a cross-disciplinary approach and a variety of views which allows an in-depth scrutinisation of the latest developments pertaining to cultural heritage in Europe.
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The Right to Appeal in International Criminal Law

Human Rights Benchmarks, Practice and Appraisal

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Drazan Djukić

In The Right to Appeal in International Criminal Law Dražan Djukić describes appeal proceedings in international criminal law and evaluates them against human rights benchmarks. While international criminal courts and tribunals mainly comply with these benchmarks, they have fallen short in certain important areas.
Despite their importance to the legal process, appeal proceedings tend to receive limited attention. On the basis of benchmarks arising from international human rights law, Dražan Djukić systematically assesses the law and practice concerning appeal proceedings in international criminal law.
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National Trials of International Crimes in Bangladesh

Transitional Justice as Reflected in Judgments

M. Rafiqul Islam

In National Trials of International Crimes in Bangladesh, Professor Islam examines the judgments of the trials held under a domestic legislation, which is uniquely distinct from international or hybrid trials of international crimes. The book, falling under international criminal law area, is a ground-breaking original work on the first ever such trials in the ICC era. The author shows how the national law and judgments can act as a conduit to import international law to enrich and harmonise the domestic law of Bangladesh; and whether the Bangladesh experience (a) creates any precedential effect for such trials in the future; (b) offers any lessons for the ICC complementarity; and (c) contributes to the progressive development of Asian and international criminal jurisprudence.
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Tamsin Phillipa Paige

Aside from self-defence, a UN Security Council authorisation under Chapter VII is the only exception to the prohibition on the use of force. Authorisation of the use of force requires the Security Council to first determine whether that situation constitutes a ‘threat to the peace’ under Article 39. The Charter has long been interpreted as placing few bounds around how the Security Council arrives at such determinations. As such commentators have argued that the phrase ‘threat to the peace’ is undefinable in nature and lacking in consistency. Through a critical discourse analysis of the justificatory discourse of the P5 surrounding individual decisions relating to ‘threat to the peace’ (found in the meeting transcripts), this book demonstrates that each P5 member has a consistent definition and understanding of what constitutes a ‘threat to the peace’.
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Christopher E. Bailey

This book examines the existing counter-terrorism laws and practices in the six-member East African Community (EAC) as it applies to a range of law enforcement and military activities under various international legal obligations. Dr. Christopher E. Bailey provides a comparative examination of existing national law for EAC countries, including compliance with obligations under international human rights and international humanitarian law, and offers a range of legal reform recommendations. This book addresses two primary, related research questions: To what extent do the current national counter-terrorism laws and practices of the EAC Partner States comply with existing international human rights safeguards? What laws or practices can the EAC adopt to achieve better compliance with human rights safeguards in both civilian and military counter-terrorism operations?
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Caleb H. Wheeler

In The Right to Be Present at Trial in International Criminal Law Caleb H. Wheeler analyses what it means for the accused to be present during international criminal trials and how that meaning has changed. This book also examines the impact that absence from trial can have on the fair trial rights of the accused and whether those rights can be upheld outside of the accused’s presence. Using primary and secondary sources, Caleb Wheeler has identified four different categories of absence and how each affects the right to be present. This permits a more nuanced understanding of how the right to be present is understood in international criminal law and how it may develop in the future.
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Kushtrim Istrefi

In European Judicial Responses to Security Council Resolutions: A Consequentialist Assessment, Kushtrim Istrefi examines the multiple effects of European courts decisions as regards Security Council targeted sanctions and security detentions interfering with fundamental rights. He elaborates what type of judicial responses ensured real and practical respect for human rights for the petitioners, encouraged Security Council due process reform, clarified Security Council authorisations on security detentions, and tested the primacy and universal character of the UN Charter.
Making use of legal and non-legal instruments, Istrefi sheds some light upon what happened to, among others, petitioners, the SC due process reform agenda, and the UN Charter after such cases as Kadi, Al-Jedda, Ahmed, Al-Dulimi.
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Exile within Borders

A Global Look at Commitment to the International Regime to Protect Internally Displaced Persons

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Gabriel Cardona-Fox

Twenty years after the introduction of the UN Guiding Principles for the Protection of Internally Displaced Persons, very little is known about their effectiveness in altering state behavior towards their displaced populations.
In this book Gabriel Cardona-Fox takes a systematic and global first look at patterns of commitment and compliance with the IDP regime. Through the innovative use of statistical analysis on all documented cases of displacement and an in-depth case study of Colombia’s evolving response towards internal displacement, this book identifies the domestic and international forces that drive some states to institute and comply with these guidelines.
Exile Within Borders fills an important gap in the literature and moves the debate over the regime’s effectiveness beyond anecdotal evidence.
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The Internal Protection Alternative in Refugee Law

Treaty Basis and Scope of Application under the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and Its 1967 Protocol

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Jessica Schultz

Under what circumstances can a state refuse refugee status to a person whose risk of persecution exists in only part of her country of origin? This book is the first monograph to examine the treaty basis and criteria for the ‘internal protection alternative’ (IPA), an exception to refugee status increasingly invoked by state parties to the 1951 Refugee Convention and its 1967 Protocol. Through a critical analysis of the relationship between refugee law and related fields, Schultz finds that the legal scope for IPA practice is narrower than is commonly claimed. Since persons subject to an IPA analysis have a well-founded fear of persecution within their countries of origin, any limit on their right to refugee status must involve a careful balancing of the impact of continued displacement against the state's interest in preserving its restricted protection resources. She argues that the doctrine of implied limits in human rights law can provide analytic structure to the IPA concept and reduce the risk of overly broad application.
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Edited by Pavel Šturma

The Rome Statute of the ICC at its Twentieth Anniversary (Achievements and Perspectives) is an edited book comprising of 13 chapters written by contributors to a conference dedicated to discuss the development, achievements and possible future evolution of the Rome Statute and international criminal law. The authors include academics from various legal systems, practitioners from the ICC and the Special Tribunal for Lebanon, attorneys and other law experts.

The International Criminal Court is the first universal international criminal tribunal. Though quite new, as the Rome Statute was adopted 20 years ago (1998) and only 16 years have passed since its entry into force, it has already developed interesting case-law and continues to elaborate on both substantive and procedural international criminal law.

Contributors are Ivana Hrdličková, Claus Kreß, Tamás Lattmann, Jan Lhotský, Milan Lipovský, Iryna Marchuk, Josef Mrázek, Anna Richterová, Simon De Smet, Ondřej Svaček, Pavel Šturma, Kateřina Uhlířová, Kristýna Urbanová, Aloka Wanigasuriya.