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Al-Mashīkhah (Kanz al-sālikīn)

Ganjīna-yi khuṭūṭ va yādgār nāma-yi mashāhīr-i ʿilmi-yi Īrān az sāl-i 845 tā 1022 HQ

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Najm al-Dīn Muḥammad Ḥammūʾī Yazdī and Sālik al-Dīn Muḥammad Ḥammūʾī Yazdī

Edited by Sayyid Muḥammad Ṯabāṭabāʿ ī Bihbahānī

In the history of Islam and the Islamic world, the authentication of knowledge has always been important. Thus, the Prophetic traditions are typically introduced by chains of transmission going back from the speaker, all the way to a direct witness of the Prophet’s sayings or deeds. And in scholarship, too, the ijāza or licence attesting to someone’s proficiency in some subject written by an established teacher was very important as well, comparable to a modern certificate or diploma. Against this background, the booklet published here is rather unique. This is because it contains study certificates and samples of the handwriting of various scholars and religious authorities, issued to five generations of scholars from one and the same family from Yazd, starting with Najm al-Dīn Muḥammad Ḥammūʾī Yazdī (d. 885/1480) and ending with Sālik al-Dīn Muḥammad Ḥammūʾī Yazdī (duwwum) (d. after 1022/1613). Most of the texts are in Arabic, while the poetry is mostly in Persian.

Al-Risāla al-muḥīṭa

Nuskha-yi khaṭṭi-yi shumāra-yi 5389 Kitābkhāna-yi Āstān-i Quds-i Riḍawī

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Ghiyāth al-Dīn Jamshīd Kāshānī

Edited by Yūnis Karāmatī

Ghiyāth al-Dīn Jamshīd Kāshānī is one of the most outstanding mathematicians and astronomers in the history of the Persianate world. The son of a physician, he was born around 790/1388 in Kashan, where he lived most of his life. Many of his writings were composed in that city, including his famous Zīj-i Khāqānī. In 824/1421 he left for Samarqand, where he played an important role in the construction of the observatory commissioned by the Timurid ruler and astronomer, Ulugh Beg (853/1449), becoming its first director. In 832/1429 he was found dead near this observatory, outside the walls of Samarqand. A violent death is suspected, probably on the order of Ulugh Beg. The present work, completed in 827/1424 in Samarqand, is about the determination of the number Pi. An innovative work of great merit, its exactness was only superseded with the publication of Ludolph van Ceulen’s Van den circel in Delft, Holland, in 1596.

Al-Yamīnī

Fī akhbār dawlat al-malik Yamīn al-Dawla Abi ʼl-Qāsim Maḥmūd b. Nāṣir al-Dawla Abī Manṣūr Sabuktakīn

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Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Jabbār al-ʿUtbī

Edited by Yūsif al-Hādī

uḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Jabbār al-ʿUtbī (d. 428/1037 or 431/1040) was a native of Rayy who, through family connections, had entered the administration of the Sāmānids in Nishapur, attaining the rank of postmaster there. After several intermediary engagements he entered the service of the founder of the Ghaznavid dynasty Abū Manṣūr Sebüktigin (d. 387/997) and then, of his son Maḥmūd of Ghazna (d. 421/1030). From the time that al-ʿUtbī was sent as an envoy to Gharchistān in around 390/1000, there is a gap in his career until he offered his famous history of the Ghaznavids presented here to Maḥmūd—also called Yamīn al-Dawla—in around 410-11/1020. Since he was rewarded with a postmastership in the relatively insignificant town of Ganj Rustāq—which he soon lost to intrigue—he must have written this Arabic work mainly as a means to securing a job. Early dynastic history, ornate style, invaluable source of information on the early Ghaznavids.

Edited by Sabine Baumann and Monica Flegel

All the World’s a Stage: Theorizing and Producing Blended Identities in a Cybercultural World explores the extent to which cyber and “real” selves increasingly overlap, intersect, and entwine. As the quotation from Shakespeare indicates, the question of the roles we play in society and their relation to our self is not new; however, the rise of cyberculture has further complicated the relationship between our sense of self and our social roles, because it provides more opportunities to adopt new or changed identities. Some contributors to this volume welcome the complexities of the self that cyberculture has engendered, and explore changes in morality, community, and identity. Others acknowledge the negative effects of such performative identities, questioning what we lose by constructing ourselves so constantly in response to a virtual audience. Nevertheless, cyberculture is now “real” culture, and coming to terms with who we are online increasingly determines who we are altogether.

›alles in den Wind geschrieben‹

Gottlob Frege wider den Zeitgeist

Matthias Wille

Gottlob Frege, dem größten Logiker nach Aristoteles und Begründer der modernen Logik, blieb zu Lebzeiten die gebührende akademische Anerkennung versagt. Matthias Wille erzählt die ergreifende Geschichte Freges im Schatten seiner epochalen Werke, die geprägt ist von wachsender Polemik wider den Zeitgeist, der ihn schließlich verstummen lässt.
Matthias Wille ist heute einer der besten Kenner von Freges Leben und Werk. Mit diesem Buch lässt Wille dem Band ›Largely unknown‹, in dem er die Geschichte des posthumen Ruhms Freges akribisch rekonstruiert hat, einen Parallelband folgen, der den z.T. verzweifelten Bemühungen Freges nachgeht, durch Publikationen die Aufmerksamkeit der Community für die Ergebnisse seiner Forschung zu gewinnen. Die Vergeblichkeit dessen hat nicht nur zu persönlichen Krisen, sondern in seinen Schriften auch zu Reaktionen geführt, deren Schärfe für Freges Persönlichkeit als charakteristisch gelten. Diese in der Fregeliteratur vielfach als witzig, oft aber auch als peinlich empfundenen Passagen erschließt Wille durch ebenso einfühlsame wie kritische Analysen nun einem angemesseneren Verständnis.

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Alan Scott Rau

The ultimate question that runs through all of our law of arbitration is the allocation of responsibility between state courts and arbitral tribunals : If private tribunals assume the power to bind others in a definitive fashion, we must ask, where does this authority come from ? Fundamentally different in this respect from a state judge, a private arbitrator may only derive his legitimacy from that exercise of private ordering and self-government which characterizes any voluntary commercial transaction. This work begins then with the dimensions of that “consent” which alone can justify arbitral jurisdiction. The discussion is then carried forward to explore how party autonomy in the contracting process may be expanded, giving rise to the voluntary reallocation of authority between courts and arbitrators. It concludes with the necessary inquiry into the autonomy with respect to the “chosen law” that will govern the agreement to arbitrate itself.

Alterität als kulturelle Herausforderung des Klonens

Eine Rekonstruktion bioethischer und literarischer Verhandlungen

Solveig Lena Hansen

Mit dem Schaf Dolly wurde 1996 zum ersten Mal ein ausgewachsenes Säugetier geklont. Das Ereignis wurde in der Bioethik kontrovers diskutiert. Szenarien, die eine Anwendung dieser Fortpflanzungstechnik auf den Menschen ausmalen, gehen häufig mit Assoziationen des Klons als fremdbestimmt, ausgegrenzt oder instrumentalisiert einher. Warum löst gerade das Klonen solche Bedeutungszuschreibungen aus? Die Studie geht dieser Frage nach, indem sie die Bioethik ins Verhältnis zu den Kulturwissenschaften setzt und die Perspektiven fiktionaler Literatur einbindet: Eine umfassende Überblicksdarstellung deutscher und englischer Romane sowie sieben vertiefende Einzelanalysen tragen durch die Verzahnung mit anderen Textformen zum Verständnis des Klon-Diskurses bei. Dabei zeigt sich, dass es in Szenarien einer zukünftigen Verwendung des Klonens wesentlich um »Alterität« geht: Sie handeln moralische Überzeugungen bzgl. Andersartigkeit oder Fremdheit aus, indem sie die Nutzung der Technik in einen fiktiven lebensweltlichen Kontext stellen. Hieraus leitet sich die zentrale Forderung ab, auch bei ethischen Urteilen, die die Zukunft betreffen, zu reflektieren, welche moralische Relevanz das Sprechen über den Anderen haben kann.

Ambitious Antiquities, Famous Forebears

Constructions of a Glorious Past in the Early Modern Netherlands and in Europe

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Karl A.E. Enenkel and Konrad Adriaan Ottenheym

This monograph studies the constructions of ‘impressive’ historical descent manufactured to create ‘national’, regional, or local antiquities in early modern Europe (1500-1700), especially the Netherlands. This was a period characterised by important political changes and therefore by an increased need for legitimation; a need which was met using historical claims. Literature, scholarship, art and architecture were pivotal media that were used to furnish evidence of the impressively old lineage of states, regions or families. These claims related not only to Classical antiquity (in the generally-known sense) but also to other periods that were regarded as periods of antiquity, such as the chivalric age. The authors of this volume analyse these intriguing early modern constructions of appropriate “antiquities” and investigate the ways in which they were applied in political, intellectual and artistic contexts in Europe, especially in the Northern Low Countries.

This book is a revised and augmented translation of Oudheid als ambitie: De zoektocht naar een passend verleden, 1400–1700 (Nijmegen: Vantilt, 2017).

American History in Transition

From Religion to Science

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Yoshinari Yamaguchi

In American History in Transition, Yoshinari Yamaguchi provides fresh insights into early efforts in American history writing, ranging from Jeremy Belknap’s Massachusetts Historical Society to Emma Willard’s geographic history and Francis Parkman’s history of deep time to Henry Adams’s thermodynamic history. Although not a well-organized set of professional researchers, these historians shared the same concern: the problems of temporalization and secularization in history writing.
As the time-honored framework of sacred history was gradually outdated, American historians at that time turned to individual facts as possible evidence for a new generalization, and tried different “scientific” theories to give coherency to their writings. History writing was in its transitional phase, shifting from religion to science, deduction to induction, and static to dynamic worldview.

Amerikas große Ernüchterung

Eine Kulturgeschichte der Prohibition

Thomas Welskopp

Seit 1920 war ein nationales Alkoholverbot Bestandteil der amerikanischen Verfassung. Wie konnte es dazu kommen? Wie veränderte die Prohibition die amerikanische Gesellschaft? Welche Gründe führten zu ihrer Abschaffung im Jahre 1933?
Thomas Welskopp legt eine Gesamtgeschichte und zugleich umfassende Gesellschaftsgeschichte der Vereinigten Staaten in der Zeit des nationalen Alkoholverbots vor. Ebenso anschaulich wie spannend erzählt der Autor, welch dramatischen Einfluss die Prohibitionsfrage und ihre Behandlung auf fast alle gesellschaftlichen Bereiche der USA ausübte.
Wie entwickelten sich das Verfassungsrecht, die illegale - aber auch die legale - Alkoholwirtschaft, die Kultur des Trinkens und die Beziehungen zwischen den Geschlechtern, die Organisierte Kriminalität, die religiösen Milieus, die staatlichen Institutionen, die massenmediale Landschaft und schließlich die politische Kultur mitsamt dem amerikanischen Parteiensystem in den Jahren zwischen der Durchsetzung (1919) und der Abschaffung (1933) der National Prohibition?