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Les martyrs Maccabées: de l'histoire juive au culte chrétien

Les homélies de Grégoire de Nazianze et de Jean Chrysostome

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Raphaëlle Ziadé

The Maccabean Martyrs, Jewish heroes from the era of the persecution of Antiochus IV Epiphanes, were incorporated into the IVth century Christian martyrology. Two Church Fathers, Gregory Nazianzen and John Chrysostom wrote panegyrics in their honour, which are studied and translated in this book.
The first part shows how, since the beginning, the Church referred to these martyrs as biblical examples known through 2 and 4 Maccabees. The second part describes, through the eulogies of Gregory and John, the circumstances surrounding the creation of the Christian Feast. The third part analyzes the preaching built around the story of the Maccabean martyrs, where, following the 4 M model, Eleazar, the seven brothers and their mother are established as examples of virtue and asceticism for the edification of all Christians.
The book investigates an original aspect of the cult of martyrs : the christianisation of jewish martyrs killed defending the Law, and sheds light on the sometimes contradictory preaching choices of Gregory and John to respond to the jewish roots of this cult.
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Les martyrs Maccabées, héros juifs de la persécution d’Antiochus IV Epiphane, furent intégrés dans le martyrologe chrétien au IVè siècle. À la même époque, en Orient, deux Pères de l’Eglise, Grégoire de Nazianze et Jean Chrysostome, ont prononcé des discours panégyriques en leur honneur, étudiés et traduits dans ce livre.
La première partie montre comment, depuis l’origine, l’Eglise citait comme exemples bibliques ces martyrs connus par le Deuxième et le Quatrième livre des Maccabées. La deuxième partie décrit, au travers des panégyriques de Grégoire et de Jean, les circonstances qui ont marqué l’instauration de la fête chrétienne dédiée à ces martyrs. La troisième partie analyse la prédication adressée aux fidèles à partir de l’épisode maccabéen, Eléazar, les sept frères et leur Mère devenant, sur le modèle de 4 M, des exemples de vertus et d’ascèse proposés à l’imitation de tous.
Le livre explore ainsi un aspect original du culte des martyrs, la christianisation de martyrs juifs morts pour la défense de la Loi, et met en lumière les choix de prédication, parfois opposés, de Grégoire et de Jean face à l’enracinement juif de ce culte.

Shoshannat Yaakov

Jewish and Iranian Studies in Honor of Yaakov Elman

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Edited by Shai Secunda and Steven Fine

Shoshannat Yaakov honors Yaakov Elman, Professor of Talmud at Yeshiva University, and celebrates Elman’s contributions to a broad range of disciplines within Jewish and Iranian studies. The fruits of Elman’s seminal project of bringing together of scholars of Iranian studies and Talmud in ways that have transformed both disciplines, are well represented in this volume, together with scholarship that ranges from Second Temple Judaism to Late Antique Judaism, Zoroastrianism, Samaritanism and Christianity.

Abraham Bar Hiyya on Time, History, Exile and Redemption

An Analysis of Megillat ha-Megalleh

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Hannu Töyrylä

An analysis of Megillat ha-Megalleh by Abraham Bar Hiyya (12th c.) as a complete text in its historical and cultural context, showing that the work - written at a time when Jews increasingly came under Christian influence and dominance – presents a coherent argument for the continuing validity of the Jewish hope for redemption. In his argument, Bar Hiyya presents a view of history, the course of which was planted by God in creation, which runs inevitably towards the future redemption of the Jews. Bar Hiyya uses philosophical, scientific, biblical and astrological material to support his argument, and several times makes use of originally Christian ideas, which he inverts to suit his argument.

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Ulrich Huttner

In Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley, Ulrich Huttner explores the way Christians established communities and defined their position within their surroundings from the first to the fifth centuries. He shows that since the time of Paul the apostle, the cities Colossae, Hierapolis and Laodicea allowed Christians to expand and develop in their own way.
Huttner uses a wide variety of sources, not only Christian texts - from Pauline letters to Byzantine hagiographies - but also inscriptions and archeological remains, to reconstruct the religious conflicts as well as cooperation between Christians, Jews and Pagans. The book reveals the importance of local conditions in the development of Early Christianity.

Fourth Ezra and Second Baruch

Reconstruction after the Fall

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Edited by Matthias Henze and Gabriele Boccaccini

The two Jewish works that are the subject of this volume, 4 Ezra and 2 Baruch, were written around the turn of the first century CE in the aftermath of the Roman destruction of the Second Temple. Both texts are apocalypses, and both occupy an important place in early Jewish literature and thought: they were composed right after the Second Temple period, as Rabbinic Judaism and early Christianity began to emerge.

The twenty essays in this volume were first presented and discussed at the Sixth Enoch Seminar at the Villa Cagnola at Gazzada, near Milan, Italy, on June 26-30, 2011. Together they reflect the lively debate about 4 Ezra and 2 Baruch among the most distinguished specialists in the field.

The Contributors are: Gabriele Boccaccini; Daniel Boyarin; John J. Collins; Devorah Dimant; Lutz Doering; Lorenzo DiTommaso; Steven Fraade; Lester L. Grabbe; Matthias Henze; Karina M. Hoogan; Liv Ingeborg Lied; Hindy Najman; George W.E. Nickelsburg; Eugen Pentiuc; Pierluigi Piovanelli; Benjamin Reynolds; Loren Stuckenbruck; Balázs Tamási; Alexander Toepel; Adela Yarbro Collins

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Edited by Alberdina Houtman, E. van Staalduine-Sulman and Hans-Martin Kirn

What is the use of a Targum in a cultural setting where Aramaic is not a common language anymore? And why would Christians be interested in a typically Jewish text in an otherwise anti-Jewish milieu? These and related questions have served as guides for Alberdina Houtman, Eveline van Staalduine-Sulman and Hans-Martin Kirn in bringing together the articles for the present book, which consists of three parts: 1. Uses and Functions of Targum in Europe; 2. Editing Targums and their Latin Translations; 3. Targums and Christianity. A number of the articles deal with the codicological and paratextual aspects of the relevant manuscripts and editions as witnesses of their cultural historical situations. The intended readership includes specialists in Targum, Jewish and medieval studies, (church) historians, codicologists and (Christian) theologians.

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Edited by Peter J. Tomson and Joshua J. Schwartz

The papers in this volume are organized around the ambition to reboot the writing of history about Jews and Christians in the first two centuries CE. Many are convinced of the need for a new perspective on this crucial period that saw both the birth of rabbinic Judaism and apostolic Christianity and their parting of ways. Yet the traditional paradigm of Judaism and Christianity as being two totally different systems of life and thought still predominates in thought, handbooks, and programs of research and teaching. As a result, the sources are still being read as reflecting two separate histories, one Jewish and the other Christian.
The contributors to the present work were invited to attempt to approach the ancient Jewish and Christian sources as belonging to one single history, precisely in order to get a better view of the process that separated both communities. In doing so, it is necessary to pay constant attention to the common factor affecting both communities: the Roman Empire. Roman history and Roman archaeology should provide the basis on which to study and write the shared history of Jews and Christians and the process of their separation.
A basic intuition is that the series of wars between Jews and Romans between 66 and 135 CE – a phenomenon unrivalled in antiquity – must have played a major role in this process. Thus the papers are arranged around three focal points: (1) the varieties of Jewish and Christian expression in late Second Temple times, (2) the socio-economic, military, and ideological processes during the period of the revolts, and (3) the post-revolt Jewish and Christian identities that emerged. As such, the volume is part of a larger project that is to result in a source book and a history of Jews and Christians in the first and second centuries.

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Edited by Ronit Nikolsky and Tal Ilan

In this book various authors explore how rabbinic traditions that were formulated in the Land of Israel migrated to Jewish study houses in Babylonia. The authors demonstrate how the new location and the unique literary character of the Babylonian Talmud combine to create new and surprising texts out of the old ones. Some authors concentrate on inner rabbinic social structures that influence the changes the traditions underwent. Others show the influence of the host culture on the metamorphosis of the traditions. The result is a complex study of cultural processes, as shaped by a unique historical moment.

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Haggai Mazuz

In The Religious and Spiritual Life of the Jews of Medina Haggai Mazuz offers an account of the halakhic character of the Jewish community of Medina in the seventh century CE. Making use of a unique methodology of comparison between Islamic and Jewish sources, Mazuz convincingly argues that the Jews of Medina were Talmudic-Rabbinic Jews in almost every respect. Their sages believed in using homiletic interpretation of the Scriptures, as did the sages of the Talmud. On many halakhic issues, their observations were identical to those of the Talmudic sages. In addition, they held Rabbinic beliefs, sayings and motifs derived from the Midrashic literature.

"The Religious and Spiritual Life of the Jews of Medina is a wonderful reference work for Talmudic study, Jewish history, and Islamic history. A must-have book for every library." - Haim Gottschalk, Association of Jewish Libraries, vol.5, no.3 (2015)
"Mazuz confronts an admirably wide range of Arabic sources, from the Qurʾan to prophetic biographies and ḥadīth compilations as well as legal and theological works. The breadth of the evidence provided to support the conclusion about the religious identity of Medina’s Jews is impressive." - Harry Munt, University of York, The Review of Rabbinic Judaism, vol.19 (2016)

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Edited by Reimund Bieringer, Emmanuel Nathan, Didier Pollefeyt and Peter J Tomson

In the framework of a larger research project into ‘New Perspectives on Paul and the Jews’, eight scholars from Europe, Israel, and North America join forces in querying Paul’s relationship to Jews and Judaism. The sample text selected for this inquiry is the Second Letter to the Corinthians, a document particularly suited for this purpose as it reflects violent clashes between Paul and rivalling Jews and Jewish Christians. While the first three articles address more general literary and historical questions, the following five present in-depth case studies of much-studied passages from the letter and the underlying issues. An introductory essay queries how in the case at hand we can gain an adequate understanding of Paul’s theology while fully respecting his particular place in Judaism.