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War Finance and Logistics in Late Imperial China

A Study of the Second Jinchuan Campaign (1771–1776)

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Ulrich Theobald

In his book War Finance and Logistics in Late Imperial China, Ulrich Theobald shows how the Qing dynasty (1644 – 1911) overcame the tyranny of logistics and successfully enlarged the territory of its empire. A detailed analysis of the long and expensive second Jinchuan war (1771 – 1776) in Eastern Tibet demonstrates that the Chinese state ordered its civilian officials as well as the common people, merchant associations, and different ethnic groups to fulfil and to foot the bill for the “common cause”. With increasing military success the state gradually withdrew from its responsibilities, believing that a War Supply and Expenditure Code (Junxu zeli) might offset the decreasing skill in and readiness to imperial leadership.

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Weichung Cheng

Approaching its demise, the Ming imperial administration enlisted members of the Cheng family as mercenaries to help in the defense of the coastal waters of Fukien. Under the leadership of Cheng Chih-lung, also known as Nicolas Iquan, and with the help of the local gentry, these mercenaries became the backbone of the empire’s maritime defense and the protectors of Chinese commercial interests in the East and South China Seas.
The fall of the Ming allowed Cheng Ch’eng-kung—alias Coxinga—and his sons to create a short-lived but independent seaborne regime in China’s southeastern coastal provinces that competed fiercely, if only briefly, with Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch and English merchants during the early stages of globalization.

National Police Reserve

The Origin of Japan’s Self Defense Forces

Thomas French

Based upon years of research undertaken in the US Occupation archives, this book provides a history of Japan’s National Police Reserve (NPR), the precursor of today’s Ground Self Defense Force (GSDF). It is the first ever comprehensive and exclusively focused history of the force in any language. The book examines the domestic and international origins of the force, the American constabulary model upon which it was based, the NPR's character and operation, and its evolution into the GSDF. This volume provides numerous insights and fresh perspectives on the character of the NPR, the origins of the SDF, the US Occupation of Japan and Cold War era US-Japan relations.

War and Geopolitics in Interwar Manchuria

Zhang Zuolin and the Fengtian Clique during the Northern Expedition

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Chi Man Kwong

In War and Geopolitics in Interwar Manchuria Kwong Chi Man revisits the civil wars in China (1925-1928) from the perspective of the often-overlooked "warlords," who fought against the joint forces of the Nationalist and Communist parties. In particular, this work focuses on Zhang Zuolin, the leader of the "Fengian Clique" who was sometimes seen as the representative of the Japanese interest in Manchuria.
Using primary and secondary sources from China, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States, this work tries to revisit the wars during the period from international, political, military, and economic-financial perspectives. It sheds new light on Zhang Zuolin's decision to fight against the Nationalists and the Communists and offers an alternative explanation to the Nationalists (temporary) victory by revealing the central importance of geopolitics in the civil wars in China during the interwar period.

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Fabrice De Backer

In L'art du siège néo-assyrien, Fabrice De Backer investigates the people, materials, tools, machines, and tactics employed during the first millenium B.C. by the Neo-Assyrians to take and defend fortified cities. The story of besieged people, along with their customs, treatment by the winners, and consequences of the conquest are also discussed.

Based on the combination of archaeology, iconography, philology and ethnographical comparisons, the analysis of the particular assets of siege-engines or architectural features are developed, along with the best means employed at that time to overcome them. De Backer proposes more than a simple census of all the means known so far, he also develops and enhances our knowledge of siege-warfare in a pragmatic and efficient manner.

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Edited by Anthony Spalinger and Jeremy Armstrong

Societies, both ancient and modern, have frequently celebrated and proclaimed their military victories through overt public demonstrations. In the ancient world, however, the most famous examples of this come from a single culture and period - Rome in the final years of the Roman Republic and early Roman Empire - while those from other cultures - such as Egypt, Greece, Neo-Assyria, and indeed other periods of Roman history – are generally unexplored. The aim of this volume is to present a more complete study of this phenomenon and offer a series of cultural reactions to successful military actions by various peoples of the ancient Mediterranean world, illustrating points of similarity and diversity, and demonstrating the complex and multifaceted nature of this trans-cultural practice.

"The book nevertheless represents a valuable collection of papers on a not so widely researched topic and is clearly a stepping stone for further research as indeed the editors intended it to be." Uros Matic, Universitaet Muenster

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Edited by Krzysztof Ulanowski

The Religious Aspect of Warfare in the Ancient Near East, Greece and Rome is a volume dedicated to investigating the relationship between religion and war in antiquity in minute detail. The nineteen chapters are divided into three groups: the ancient Near East, Greece, and Rome. They are presented in turn and all possible aspects of warfare and its religious connections are investigated. The contributors focus on the theology of war, the role of priests in warfare, natural phenomena as signs for military activity, cruelty, piety, the divinity of humans in specific martial cases, rituals of war, iconographical representations and symbols of war, and even the archaeology of war. As editor Krzysztof Ulanowski invited both well-known specialists such as Robert Parker, Nicholas Sekunda, and Pietro Mander to contribute, as well as many young, talented scholars with fresh ideas. From this polyphony of voices, perspectives and opinions emerges a diverse, but coherent, representation of the complex relationship between religion and war in antiquity.

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Edited by Maria Pretzler and Nick Barley

Brill’s Companion to Aineias Tacticus is a collection of articles on the significance of the earliest Greek handbook on military tactics. Aineias’ (Aeneas) wrote his Poliorketika in the mid-fourth century BC, offering a unique perspective on contemporary Greek city-states, warfare and intellectual trends. We offer an introduction to Aineias and his work, and then discuss the work’s historical and intellectual context, his qualities as a writer, and aspects of his work as a historical source for the Greek polis of the fourth century BC. Several chapters discuss Aineias’ approach to warfare, specifically light infantry, mercenaries, naval operations, fortifications and technology. Finally, we include a lengthy study of the reception of ancient military treatises, specifically Aineias’ Poliorketika, in the Byzantine period.

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Edited by Timothy Howe and Lee L. Brice

In Brill's Companion to Insurgency and Terrorism in the Ancient Mediterranean, Tim Howe and Lee Brice challenge the view that these forms of conflict are specifically modern phenomena by offering an historical perspective that exposes readers to the ways insurgency movements and terror tactics were common elements of conflict in antiquity. Assembling original research on insurgency and terrorism in various regions including, the Ancient Near East, Greece, Central Asia, Persia, Egypt, Judea, and the Roman Empire, they provide a deep historical context for understanding these terms, demonstrate the usefulness of insurgency and terrorism as concepts for analysing ancient Mediterranean behavior, and point the way toward future research.

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Edited by Jessica H. Clark and Brian Turner

In Brill's Companion to Military Defeat in Ancient Mediterranean Society, Jessica H. Clark and Brian Turner lead a re-examination of how Near Eastern, Greek, and Roman societies addressed – or failed to address – their military defeats and casualties of war. Original case studies illuminate not only how political and military leaders managed the political and strategic consequences of military defeats, but also the challenges facing defeated soldiers, citizens, and other classes, who were left to negotiate the meaning of defeat for themselves and their societies. By focusing on the connections between war and society, history and memory, the chapters collected in this volume contribute to our understanding of the ubiquity and significance of war losses in the ancient world.